明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月25日 19:27:03
OTTAWA — Steamed, sauted or stir-fried, cauliflower is standard fare on many dinner tables. In Canada, it is a luxury.渥太华——蒸、嫩煎或煸炒的花菜,在许多地方的餐桌上是一道家常菜。在加拿大,却是一种奢侈。A head of cauliflower there now goes for around 8 Canadian dollars, a tripling in price, the strange foodie fallout from the low price of oil and other commodities.如今一个花菜在那里可以卖到大约8加元(约合38元人民币),价格是原来的三倍,这是石油和其他大宗商品价格走低连累“吃货”的一个古怪案例。The recipe for high-priced cauliflower starts with the currency.天价花菜的出现,首先要从汇率说起。As prices for commodities have dropped, the value of the Canadian dollar has fallen, a direct link to an economy that is dependent on oil and other resources. It makes imports, like fresh American vegetables during the dark Canadian winter, look especially costly.随着大宗商品价格下跌,加元出现贬值,对于一个依赖石油和其他资源的经济体来说,这是一种直接的联动。这就导致进口商品的价格显得格外夸张,比如在天昏地暗的加拿大隆冬时节从美国进口的新鲜蔬菜。Two years ago, one Canadian dollar was worth 93 American cents. On Wednesday, it stood at 69 American cents.两年前,一加元相当于93美分。在本周三是69美分。The drought in California, where Canadians get most of their vegetables in the off-season, just compounds the sticker shock. With less bounty in the fields, farmers’ prices, in American dollars, are higher than normal.而加拿大的非时令蔬菜大多来自加州,那里的旱情也加剧了价格的暴涨。由于收成不佳,以美元计的农产品价格要高于正常水平。As a result, fresh vegetables feel more like a splurge for Canadian consumers.这样一来,新鲜蔬菜在加拿大消费者眼里就成了奢侈品。Iceberg lettuce sells for 3 Canadian dollars, up from the typical 90 Canadian cents. One head of broccoli goes for , compared with .50 for two in the past. Last winter, a head of cauliflower was selling for 2.50 Canadian.圆生菜售价从平常的90加分涨到了3加元。一个西兰花卖到4加元,在过去1.50加元可以买到两个。去年冬天,一个花菜的价格是2.50加元。“We’ve gone through this cycle before with the dollar,” said Jim McKeen, owner of McKeen Metro Glebe, a grocery store in downtown Ottawa. “But there were issues on prices anyways because of supply in addition to this whole fiasco with the Canadian dollar. It’s a perfect storm.”“这些汇率的事以前全都经历过,”渥太华市中心食品杂货店McKeen Metro Glebe老板吉姆·麦基恩(Jim McKeen)说。“但是供应不足决定了价格本来就会有问题,再加上加元惨成这样,就成了一场完美风暴。”The Canadian dollar, in part, reflects the trouble in the country’s economy.加元一定程度上反应了该国的经济困境。For years, Canada rode the global commodities boom. The rapidly growing Chinese economy — and its seemingly insatiable appetite for commodities — helped increase the price of oil, potash, nickel and the other Canadian resources.加拿大多年来得益于全球大宗商品的繁荣。快速增长的中国经济——及其看上去永无止境的大宗商品需求——推高了石油、钾盐、镍和其他加拿大资源的价格。With China’s demand now faltering, commodity prices have reversed course. Oversupply of oil has similarly devastated its price. Both factors are taking their toll on the Canadian economy. The gross domestic product increased just 0.6 percent in the third quarter of 2015, after six months of negative growth.随着中国的需求增长放缓,大宗商品价格急转直下。石油的供过于求也对价格造成了类似的冲击。这两个因素都在危害加拿大经济。在经过六个月的负增长后,其国内生产总值在2015年第三季度只增长了0.6%。Since October, the decline in the Canadian dollar, aly looking shaky against a surging American currency, has picked up speed.自去年10月以来,加元加速贬值,与强劲的美元相比,加元显得摇摇欲坠。In many ways, a weaker currency is helpful to the economy. The ed States is overwhelmingly the largest market for Canadian exports, which are now less expensive across the border because of the currency’s fall.从很多方面来看,走软的货币对经济有利。美国是加拿大最大的出口市场,远超其他国家。由于货币贬值,加拿大出口商品的价格有所降低。And commodity exports are almost all priced in American dollars. So foreign exchange gains have helped cushion some of the blow to Canadian oil producers and mining companies, which largely sell their resources elsewhere.出口大宗商品的价格几乎都是以美元定价。因此,外汇收益在一定程度上缓和了加拿大石油生产商和矿业公司遭受的冲击,这些企业开采的资源主要销往其他地区。“From a household point of view, what Canadians see is that their dollar isn’t going as far,” said Craig Alexander, vice president of economic research at the C.D. Howe Institute, an economic analysis and policy group “But it’s good for Canadians, it’s good for jobs. The primary driver for economic growth going forward has to come from nonresource export sectors.”“普遍看法是,加拿大人认为加元不会一路跌下去,”经济分析及政策研究机构C·D·豪研究所(C.D. Howe Institute)负责经济分析的副所长克雷格·亚历山大(Craig Alexander)说。“但这对加拿大人有利,对就业有利。经济继续增长的主要驱动力来自非资源型出口领域。”Canada’s tourism industry and other service sectors, which had been suffering, are aly experiencing gains from the currency drop. Luke Azevedo, the film commissioner for Calgary Economic Development, said there had been a notable rise in production in Alberta, where large portions of the movie “The Revenant” and the television series “Fargo” were filmed last year.步履艰难的加拿大旅游业及其他务行业,已经从货币贬值的形势中受益。卡尔加里经济发展局(Calgary Economic Development)电影专员卢克·阿塞韦多(Luke Azevedo)表示,艾伯塔省的制片活动显著增多。去年,电影《荒野猎人》(The Revenant)和电视剧《冰血暴》(Fargo)的很多场景都是在卡尔加里拍摄的。“It’s across the country and the dollar plays a fairly significant role,” Mr. Azevedo said.阿塞韦多说,“全国都是这样,加元汇率发挥了重要作用。”Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on Wednesday, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau emphasized Canada’s strengths in technology and education rather than its ailing natural resource sector.周三,加拿大总理贾斯廷·特鲁多(Justin Trudeau)在瑞士达沃斯举行的世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)发表讲话时,强调了加拿大在技术和教育方面的优势,并未多谈状况欠佳的自然资源行业。“Our natural resources are important and always will be,” Mr. Trudeau said. “But Canadians know that growth and prosperity is not only based on what’s under our feet but particularly on what we have between our ears.”“我们的自然资源非常重要,将来也是如此,”特鲁多说。“但加拿大人知道,发展和繁荣不仅仅是基于我们脚底下的资源,还尤其要依靠我们的头脑。”Consumer costs are creeping up in a number of areas.在一些领域,消费者的购物成本在逐渐提高。The turnover in the grocery aisle, compared with, say, a clothing store, is faster, meaning changes in currency are more quickly reflected. And profit margins are thin, so grocery stores are less willing to absorb the losses.例如,与装店相比,食杂店的价格上涨得更快一些,这意味着杂货店更快速地体现了汇率波动。由于利润空间非常微薄,食杂店更不愿承受这种损失。The current collapse of the country’s dollar could have a more significant impact in supermarkets than it did in the early 2000s, according to Sylvain Charlebois, a professor at the University of Guelph in Ontario and one of the authors of an annual study of Canadian food prices.安大略省圭尔夫大学(University of Guelph)教授西尔万·沙勒布瓦(Sylvain Charlebois)表示,与2000年代初期的情况相比,目前加元汇率暴跌的形势可能会给超市带来更为显著的影响。沙勒布瓦跟其他人合著了一份关于加拿大食品价格的年度研究报告。Professor Charlebois estimated that about 140 Canadian food processing plants have closed in recent years. Many were owned by multinationals that have replaced Canadian production with imports from their larger American plants. Kellogg’s ended a century of production in London, Ontario, just over a year ago.据沙勒布瓦教授估计,近些年来约有140家加拿大食品加工厂关门。很多加工厂归跨国公司所有,这些公司用规模更大的美国加工厂生产的进口产品,代替加拿大本地生产的产品。一年多以前,氏(Kellogg)停止了该公司在安大略省伦敦市已经持续百年的生产活动。The result, Professor Charlebois said, is that price increases will be seen throughout grocery stores and not just in their fresh produce aisles. Aly, he said, some breakfast cereals have hit 10 Canadian dollars.沙勒布瓦教授表示,结果就是,不仅新鲜农产品的价格会上涨,食杂店商品的价格也会抬高。他表示,一些谷类早餐的价格已经达到10加元。Fishermen in Prince Edward Island now send most of their oyster harvest to the ed States to capitalize on the currency difference. That’s leading to shortages at Canadian fishmongers, forcing some restaurant owners to reimport from the ed States.爱德华王子岛的渔民现在将收获的大多数牡蛎都运往了美国,以便利用汇率差价获利。这导致加拿大鱼贩缺货,迫使一些餐厅老板从美国再进口牡蛎。“It’s mind-boggling that I have to buy Malpeque oysters from my American importer in Boston,” said David McMillan, the co-owner of Joe Beef and two other restaurants in Montreal, adding that the cost of the oyster from Prince Edward Island had risen to 120 Canadian dollars a box from about 90 Canadian dollars. “That’s a lot of money for not a special oyster.”“我得从美国波士顿的进口商那里购买莫尔佩克产的牡蛎,这真是令人难以置信,”戴维·麦克米伦(David McMillan)说。麦克米伦在蒙特利尔与别人合开了Joe Beef及其他两家餐厅。他还表示,爱德华王子岛出产的牡蛎价格从一箱90加元上涨到了120加元。“对于并不特别的牡蛎来说,这个价格太高了。” /201601/424085



  Uniforms are a pervasive part of many societies. But in China there seems to be a particular adherence to uniforms. From entering the subway, passing security and stepping onto the train, you will have encountered not one, but multiple uniformed staff. Walking down the street will have meant dodging bright orange street cleaners, food-delivery staff on scooters or identically dressed salon workers receiving their morning briefing. Upon entering your office, you may have passed uniformed security guards on your way to colleagues dressed in suits and ties. They’re inescapable.制是许多社会普遍存在的一部分。但是中国人似乎更钟情于制。当你乘地铁、过安检和坐火车时,你都会看到穿着各种制的工作人员。当你走在街上,随处可以看到穿着明亮橘色制的清洁工,骑着踏板车的送餐员以及接受早训的沙龙务员。当你去办公室时,你会遇见穿着制的保安,以及西装革履的同事。制无处不在。The uniform#39;s place in Chinese society can be traced back through the country#39;s history. As in most places across the world, they have been worn throughout the ages in the military to distinguish between factions and provide protection. Each dynasty favored a different style for its soldiers. Drawings of soldiers from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-221 B.C.) show studded boots and uniforms with heavy arm and torso protection, whereas similar depictions from the Sui Dynasty (A.D. 581-618) illustrate draped and layered military wear. Uniforms were often as fierce as the battles their wearers fought in.制在中国社会的地位是有历史可以追溯的。就像在世界其他地方一样,士兵穿制,一是为了区分军事派别,二是为了提供保护。每一个朝代的士兵制的风格都不同,从东周时期手绘士兵的画像可以看出,他们穿着沉重的靴子和制以保护手臂和身体,同样的,从隋朝时期士兵的画像可以看出,他们都披着一层一层的盔甲。制常常是士兵在激烈战斗中最好的保护。Uniforms were also designed to show status and mark levels of authority. In China, the Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an were molded to wear styles commonly found in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). Officers#39; ranks were discernible by their dress, with generals wearing a dual long jacket, long pants, thigh protectors, a crest hat and a pair of boots with square tips.制也通常用来显示权威者的地位和阶级。在中国,西安兵马俑的穿着常见于秦朝。通过他们的穿着,可以明显地分辨出军官的军衔,例如,将军都是穿着两层长袍,长裤子,一双长方靴和带着一顶帽子。But at points throughout history, uniforms were deemed fashion items too. Zhongshan suits (Chinese tunic suits, above) were hugely popular among males in 1950s, with women’s clothing based on a similar style. Introduced by Sun Yat-Sen and made famous by Mao Zedong who favored it in public, hence the nickname ‘Mao suit’, the clothing became a form of national dress.然而在历史上,制也曾是时尚物品。中山装在20世纪50年代非常受欢迎,甚至女性的装也是类似的风格。中山装是由孙中山发明的,由于毛泽东非常喜欢在公共场合穿,因此中山装又称“毛装”。自此中山装成为了一种民族饰。In the military, clothing now follows the generic western style of pants, jacket and a hat. The Zhongshan suit has also undergone modernization. With an altered shape and more streamlined look, the once shapeless garment is now fitted and more flattering for the male body. But while it is still a popular choice for Chinese leaders during important events, tunic suits are rarely seen in wider society.军事上,装一般都是遵循西式的风格,长裤、夹克以及帽子。原本没什么型的中山装也经历了现代化,款式上有了改变,更流线型的外观、更合体的剪裁凸显出男性的身材美。尽管在重要场合,中山装仍是中国领导人的首要选择,但是在社会日常生活中很少见。Yet, there are many places where uniforms live on. This is the case in the hospitality industry in particular, explains Catalina Calin, director of Calin Fashion Academy in Beijing.北京Calin时装学院校长Catalina Calin称,仍然有很多地方需要制,尤其是务业。“In Europe, you don#39;t see uniforms that often [compared to China]. Hospitality is the one industry that is still using them because they can project the type of service or professionalism that you are expecting,; she says. ;A uniform is very important for how a client sees you, but it’s also important for how the employee is feeling. The uniform has to be fitted right for the person to feel confident and beautiful.”“与中国相比,欧洲穿制的人不那么常见。从事务业的人仍然穿制,因为这可以投射出你所期望的务和专业”,她还说,“制是客户如何看待你的一个标准,但员工的感觉也很重要,合身的制穿在身上能够展现自信和美丽”。Calin believes there will be more emphasis on uniforms#39;appearance in the future: ;Chinese ladies are starting to become more conscious of their appearance and beauty. This flows through to the places they work, which have to fit their needs,; she says, citing staff the New World Hotel’s Yin on 12 bar as an example of progression. ;They wear short black skirts, rock-style shoes and dark make-up. This brings a very cool image to the bar.;Calin认为,未来将会更加重视制的外观,她说“中国女性越来越在意自己的外表。她们工作的地方也需满足她们的这一需求”。以New World Hotel酒吧的员工为例,“她们穿黑色短裙,摇滚风的鞋子,画着烟熏妆,这带给人一种非常酷的印象”。But China#39;s love affair with uniforms stretches far beyond hospitality. While there is no single explanation for this, it may reflect a more inherently collectivist culture, where self-identity is shaped by group memberships. In the workplace, or in schools, people feel a stronger sense of self if they are able to define themselves as part of a group.但是在中国,不仅仅是务业钟情于制,虽然对此没有单一的解释,但是这可能反应了一种内在的集体文化,自我认同往往体现在集体关系中。在工作场所或者学校,如果能够成为集体中的一部分,那么他们就有很强的自我认同感。On the streets of Beijing, the way people feel about wearing uniforms varies wildly. Outside Ginza Mall we find Xing (above), a safety officer from Shanxi, wearing a dark blue-black shirt, pants and hat. ;I feel like a soldier when I wear my uniform,; he declares, demonstrating an army-like pose. “It makes me feel like I#39;m part of a team. I like all of it.;在北京的街头,人们对穿制的感受参差不齐。在银座购物中心外面,我们采访了邢,一个来自山西的保安,他穿着一套藏青色的保安(如上图所示)。“当我穿上制时,我感觉自己像一个战士,”他说,同时站了一个军姿,“这让我感觉我是这个团队的一员,我非常喜欢这一切。”But not all are so positive about their work clothes. Zhao (below left), a 55-year-old former architect from Zhangjiakou, has been a cleaner around Dongzhimen for half a year. Like most cleaners, he is given two uniforms (one for winter and a lighter one for summer). Currently, he is wearing an orange jacket and pants and a pair of worn-out gray gloves, while carrying a straw broom and bucket in hand.然而并不是所有的人都喜欢他们的工作,来自张家口的55岁的赵(下图左),之前是一个建筑师,现在在东直门做清洁工已经半年了。像大多数清洁工一样,他有两套工作(一套是冬天的,一套是夏天的)。目前,他穿着一套橙色的装,带着一副破烂的灰色手套,手里拿着扫帚和桶。;I don#39;t like the color. If I could change my uniform I#39;d change the color because the orange doesn#39;t look very attractive. The uniform isn#39;t comfortable. It#39;s checked regularly though so we can#39;t change it in any way,; says Zhao, who says that cleaners all wear their own shoes but that their employers provide washing powder.他说,“我不喜欢这个颜色。如果我能改变我的工作,我会改变这个颜色,因为橙色不大好看。而且这个工作也不舒,因为会定期检查,所以我们没法改变它”,他还说,清洁工都是穿自己的鞋子,但是雇主会提供洗衣粉。In fact, cleaners#39; uniforms in Beijing differ according to location. One cleaner at Tiananmen Square, Liu (above right), 51, wears a royal-blue suit with yellow accents as he rides in a small electric cart with a bucket picking up trash. ;My uniform is comfortable and I think the blue looks good,; he says.事实上,工作区域不同,北京清洁工的制也是不同的。刘(上图右)今年51岁,是天安门广场的一个清洁工,穿着一件宝蓝色制,前胸是一抹醒目的黄色,他骑着一辆小型电动车,后面是一个捡垃圾的铲斗。他说,“我的制很舒,我觉得蓝色很好看。”His uniform is in stark contrast to Zhao#39;s bright orange. The latter#39;s dress may be down to practical considerations, such as the heavy traffic in Dongzhimen and the need for greater visibility. But in the restaurant world, the style of uniform is largely dependent on the establishment#39;s level of service and cuisine. High-end restaurants feature more of a classic style (shirt, pants) than those found in fast-food restaurants, for instance, which favor casual wear in the form of polos and tracksuits.他的蓝色制与赵的橙色制形成鲜明对比。后者可能出于实际穿衣的考虑,例如,东直门的交通繁忙,需要更大的关注度。但是在餐饮业,制的风格很大程度上取决于务和烹饪的水平。高级餐厅比快餐厅的制风格更经典,通常是衬衫和长裤,而快餐厅会穿休闲装,比如马球衫和运动。Zhang (above left), a server at the popular Guijie restaurant Culiang Renjia, wears a floral-printed top-and-pant combination with simple black shoes and pigtailed hair. Apart from a faint resemblance to pajamas, the uniform is visually appealing, and it fits the restaurant#39;s theme of nostalgia.张(上图左),是簋街粗粮人家餐厅的务员,穿着一套印花套装,一双简单的黑布鞋,梳着麻花辫。除了有点像睡衣这点不足外,这套制看起来很有吸引力,这非常符合餐厅怀旧的风格。;I like my uniform because it#39;s unique and looks nice,” she says. ;It#39;s very comfortable.;“我非常喜欢我的制,因为它看起来很独特,很不错”,她说,“而且它很舒”。As in most countries, uniform wearing begins from a young age in China. A student at Beijing No. 55 Middle School, 12-year old Fu (below), wears the mandatory tracksuit school uniform in blue, white and red. The tracksuit-style uniform has been worn by schoolchildren for more than two decades.像许多国家一样,中国人也是从很小的年纪开始穿制的。附(下图),北京第55中学的学生,今年12岁了,身着学校强制性统一的蓝白红相间的校。学生穿运动风格的校已经20多年了。;Foreigners at my school don#39;t have to wear the uniform. I#39;d rather not have to wear it either because I don#39;t think it looks very good. I think other countries#39; school uniforms look much better.;“外国学生在我们学校不用穿校。我也不想穿,因为我觉得我们的校不好看,我觉得其他国家的校要好看得多。”She tells us that her school has three uniforms (though all are variations on the tracksuit), which cost RMB480 altogether. The tracksuits were designed – like many school uniforms – to prevent comparisons between students#39; appearances and to eliminate worries over clothing choice. The style fulfills these criteria, but at what cost? As one online commentator bluntly assessed: ;They are the ugliest in the world.;他告诉我们,学校共发了三套校(都是运动风格的),一共480元。像许多校一样,运动风格的设计是为了防止学生之间攀比,也是为了消除学生选择穿什么衣的忧虑。校满足这些要求,但是代价是什么呢?一位在线者直言不讳地评价:“这些校是全世界最丑的。”This particular comment came after US First Lady Michelle Obama visited a Beijing high school in 2014 and photos from the trip were splashed across social media. Commentators pointed out that the tracksuit is practical and wear-resistant, though many expressed that other designs can fulfill the same goals.这个特别的是在美国第一夫人米歇尔2014年访问北京一所高中时发表的,她的行程照片被刊登在社交媒体上。者指出运动很实用,耐磨,但是很多人同时表示其他设计也能达到这一要求。For students, as with adults, uniforms can increase the wearer#39;s confidence. Some believe that more stylish school wear may help students perform better (or feel happier, at least). In April 2013, the Henan Provincial Experimental School in Zhengzhou decided to let students design their own uniforms. The results were met with praise from parents and the public, and delight from students.学生和成年人一样,穿制可以增加他们的信心。一些人表示穿时髦的校可以帮助学生表现得更好(至少他们会感到更开心)。2013年4月,河南省郑州市实验学校决定让学生自己设计校,这一决定受到家长和公众的一致好评,学生也从中得到了乐趣。;Students have their own sense of aesthetics at their age,; the school#39;s Student Affairs Director, Feng Yan, told CCTV.“这个年龄段的学生有他们自己的审美观”,该校的教务处主任冯艳告诉央视。Such experiments are not necessarily a sign of relaxing attitudes toward uniforms in contemporary China. Despite a growing sense of individualism among younger generations, uniforms#39; historic, cultural and practical role may see them widely retained across the country – and across industries. But while dressing in the same way may be, in some respects, the antithesis of fashion, uniforms are also subject to change over time. If these changes can accommodate both function and form, their place in society may be safe for some time to come.这一实验并不是指当代中国对制有了一定放松的态度。尽管年轻一代有着越来越强烈的个人主义观念,但制的历史性、文化性和实用性在全国各地广泛地保留着,而且是跨行业。在某些方面,穿着一样的衣可能是站在时尚的对立面,但制也在随着时间的改变而改变。如果这些改变能够同时兼顾功能和形式,那么制在社会中仍将保持它的地位。 /201511/409788

  The fierce striving for power within the court divided the rule of the Western Jin Court.西晋时期朝廷内的权力争夺激烈复杂。To gain the full control over the imperial country, Emperor Wu believed strong family connections and appointed his male relatives kings. Usually these kings had their own armies and served as governors of various states where they wielded far-reaching administrative power.晋武帝为了巩固皇权,大封宗室为王,以诸王统率兵马出镇一方,并拥有地方的军政权。The practice of Emperor Wu did change the situation prevailing in the kingdom of Wei, in which the various cesses were mere figurehead. However, Emperor Wu did not foresee that he also left the foreshadows for the future power struggle after his death.武帝的这些措施的确改变了魏时皇子没有实权的局面,但他却没有意识到这同时也给日后诸王争权埋下了祸根。In 290, Emperor Wu of Jin died and his second son Sima Zhong became the emperor later called Emperor Hui.太熙元年(290),晋武帝司马炎病故,由次子惠帝司马衷继位。Sima Zhong had been appointed Heir Apparent in 267, and in 272 he married the Lady Jia Nanfeng, daughter of the minister Jia Chong, an old supporter of the Sima family and had played a leading role in the fighting against Cao Mao in 260.惠帝于公元267年被封为太子,272年与贾充之女贾南风成婚。贾充曾帮助司马家族在争夺王位时打败曹髦。Hui Emperor was a retarded man. It is recorded that upon hearing that his subjects had even no thin porridge to eat and people died of starvation, Hui Di responded “So why not eat their meat!”惠帝本是愚痴之人,被立为太子只是为保持和贾家的联盟。史载他闻报天下慌乱,百姓饿死,竟说:“何不食肉糜? ”Sima Yan main-tained him as his heir in order to accept the alliance with the Jia family therefore although there was a general anxiety from increasing evidence, Sima Zhong was mentally disabled and unfit to rule and the power was handed over to Empress Jia. Jia thus was the another femme fatale in Chinese history after Empress Lu in the Han Dynasty.尽管当时形势危急,他却不能掌管朝政,于是大权逐渐落在皇后贾氏的手里。According to the records, “Jia Nanfeng was a short, dark-skinned and ugly woman with hot temper and her husband was afraid of her. ”据载,“惠帝后贾氏,名南风……其人丑且短黑,荒淫放恣,惠帝畏之”。Then the Emperor Hui’s mother’s family Yang and her father, Yang Jun took over state power by a joint scheme.因此,贾后继吕后等人之后,成了历史上另一有名的“祸水”女人。In 291, Empress Jia ganged up with the Prince of Chu, who was in charge of the army in the capital,killed Yang Jun,dethroned Empress Dowager Yang and appointed the Prince Runan as regent.当时因杨太后及其父杨骏专揽朝政,贾后乃於元康元年(291) 密召都督荆州军事的楚王玮人京,利用禁军的力量杀掉杨骏,废杨太后,改由汝南王亮辅政。Shortly afterwards, on Empress Jia’a order, Prince Runan was murdered by Prince Chu whom, in his turn, was put to death by the Empress. Finally Empress Jia#39;s family took the reign alone.同年,贾后利用楚王玮杀汝南王亮,后又因玮矫杀亮并不能治理国家,最终贾后专政。All the twenty-seven royal kings and families in the localities, built up by Emperor Wu of Jin, who were supposed to be a reliable force to shore up the court, could not serve the court effectively with each coveting the throne.晋武帝立国后,分封了27个同姓王,以屏藩皇室,孰料竟造成外重内轻、难以调动之局势。During the reign of Emperor Hui, various kings unhappy with Empress Jia ’ s rule over the court alone andbecame embroiled in court intrigue, which instigated a large-scale internecine. From 291 onwards, the eight kings, namely, Liang (King of Runan), Wei (King of Chu), Lun (King of Zhao), Jiong (King of Qi), Ying (King of Chengdu), Yi ( King of Changsha), Yong ( King of Hejian), and Yue (King of the Eastern Sea), fought against each other for the throne in the area a-round Luoyang.司马氏诸王不满于朝中贾氏专权,纷纷想杀贾氏而独掌大权,因而相互残杀,于是便爆发了历时16年之久的“八王之乱”,其中八王全部是晋皇室宗亲,分别是:汝南王亮、楚王玮、齐王冏、赵王伦、成都王颖、长沙王义、河间王颗、东海王越。公元291年开始在今洛阳一带杀戮不断。In 299, the Princess Zhao, Sima Lun killed Empress Jia and her supporters and took the control of the imperial court.公元299年,赵王伦杀贾后及其党羽,独揽大权。Sima Lun’s deposing Emperor Hui in 301 and claiming himself the emperor marked the beginning of the later called “Disturbances of the Eight Princes”,which ended up with Emperor Hui#39;s death in 306. After poisoned Emperor Hui to death, Sima Yue, Prince Donghai put Sima Zhi, the twenty-fifty son of Emperor Wu, whom to throne later known as Emperor Huai of Jin. The victory of Sima Yue finished the civil war, but it had ended in exhaustion and despair.其后,又于永宁元年(301)废惠帝自立为帝,是为“八王之乱”之始。直至公元306年,东海王越毒死惠帝,拥立武帝司马炎第二十五子怀帝司马炽继位,至此“八王之乱”结束。Sixteen years of turmoil had produced a ferocious, meaningless record of treachery, murder and war, which further aggraviated the underdeveloped economic situation in the early years of the Western Jin. The credit of the government and the imperial family were ruined,the greater part of the imperial armies had been destroyed in the internecine fighting, and there was no authority that might restore the state or reestablish a position against the forces threatening from the northern minorities.“八王之乱”虽告结束,这一场祸乱长达16年之久,其间无数的杀伐和内战带来的只是灾难,使西晋初年并不十分发达的经济,受到更为严重的破坏,耗尽了西晋的国力和兵力,削弱了皇室家族的势力和晋朝的统治,以致后来无法抵御来自北方少数民族的进犯。 /201512/415731A microblog alleging that ;smog will make people look uglier year by year; has been circulated online recently, voc.com.cn reported on Tuesday.华声在线周二报道,一则宣称;雾霾让人逐年变丑;的微近日在网上疯传。Such microblog posts originated from a proposal by a well-known Chinese otolaryngological expert and professor Zhang Quan#39;an on protecting children from the harm caused by smog, at the local Two Sessions of Shaanxi province.此类文源自国内知名耳鼻喉专家张全安教授在陕西省两会上提交的关于保护儿童免受雾霾危害的提案。Zhang said in his proposal that children can develop a ;smog face; and coryza, caused by harmful particles in the air, which can also result in a shortage of oxygen supply to the brain.张全安在他的提案中表示,有害空气中的微粒会使得儿童五官变形形成“雾霾脸”,还会导致大脑缺氧。He told voc.com.cn the claim that smog can make children look uglier sounds exaggerated but has theoretical support.他接受华声在线采访时表示,;雾霾使儿童变丑;的说法听起来夸张,但确有理论依据。When children get coryza due to an irritation of the nose caused by harmful particles in smog, their nose gets blocked and they have to use their mouths to breathe, and this could adversely affect facial development over time and develop a short thick upturned upperlip and an irregular row of teeth, Zhang explained.张全安对此作出解释:当儿童因雾霾中的有害颗粒物刺激鼻腔而患上鼻炎时,其鼻腔堵塞,必须用嘴呼吸。这不利于儿童的面部发育,会造成其上唇短厚翘起,牙齿排列不整齐。Children whose brains are still developing may experience retarded development as a result of breathing disorders at night.而在夜间,大脑还处于发育期的儿童因为鼻腔呼吸不畅,引发大脑发育的延缓。Zhang said he was researching the safest way for children to wear masks, as these are so far the most effective means to protect wearers from the potential harm caused by smog.张全安表示,他正在研究儿童戴面具的最安全方法,因为这是到目前为止,最有效的保护使用者免受烟雾造成的潜在危害的手段 /201603/428939To many, Disney is synonymous with innocent morality stories and fluffy rodents singing songs of hope and joy. This is an image Disney has worked hard to perpetuate in their films, but many of the supposedly innocent messages, on closer examination, can be revealed as otherwise. There is no doubt that Disney movies have brought happiness to millions, if not billions of children around the world. In this list, however, I have examined some of the more harrowing themes present in Disney movies, which may have affected you and your children more than you know.在大多数人眼中,迪斯尼是天真和美德的代名词,故事的主角是一群唱着希望和欢乐之歌的毛茸动物们。在迪士尼电影中,这种形象一直延续至今,但是我们在细细品味之后就会发现,这些所谓的天真故事其实另有深意。毫无疑问,即使不考虑数十亿来自世界各地的孩子们,迪斯尼电影也已经为数百万人带来了欢乐。然而,在下面这个榜单中,小编列举出几个迪士尼电影中颇具争议的主题,这些主题可能对你和你的孩子造成意料之外的影响。10.Historical Inaccuracies10.歪曲历史Perhaps one of the most obvious points critics have grilled Disney over are historical inaccuracies in their few films which are actually based on real events. ;Pocahontas; has been dubbed a travesty on the history of the Native American genocide. The title character is portrayed as a native woman who falls in love with settler John Smith, but in reality Pocahontas was only 10 at the time. Smith did befriend the girl but there was no romance. An even worse travesty is the film#39;s end. The settlers become friends with the natives and everyone lives happily ever after. Really Disney? In fact, 90% of the indigenous people in America were wiped out by a combination of disease and genocide of crazed religious settlers, believing their actions justified by the idea of ;manifest destiny;. Those who survived were subjected to poor living conditions and servitude to the land-grabbing Europeans, who subsequently became Americans.在若干部迪士尼电影中,对历史的描述与真实事件不相符,这一点自然遭到批评家们的严厉控诉。他们认为《风中奇缘》歪曲了印第安人种族灭绝的历史。这部电影以女主角的名字命名,她是一位印第安少女,与殖民者约翰·史密斯坠入爱河,但真实历史中的波卡·洪塔斯在当时只是个10岁的孩子。史密斯的确帮助过这个女孩,但是两人之间并没有什么罗曼史。电影的结局更是胡编乱造:殖民者与印第安人结下了深厚的友谊,从此大家过着幸福的生活。真的是这样吗?事实上,90%的美国原住民或是因疾病死亡,或是遭到殖民者的屠杀,这些疯狂的殖民者认为他们的杀戮行为是;神授天命;。那些幸存者过着贫穷的生活,成为欧洲殖民者的奴隶,后来,这些殖民者变成了美国的主人。9.Extreme Thinness9.异常纤瘦的人物形象The size-zero look is replicated by every single Disney princess in cinema, with the exception of Snow White, perhaps because in the 1930s ideals of beauty were different from now. It#39;s not just that women are portrayed as slender to increase their attractiveness; the level of exaggeration (for example in the impossibly lean waist of Megara from ;Hercules;) is staggering to the point absurdity. Many critics, particularly feminists, have blasted Disney over this portrayal of women, claiming that the images have inspired anorexia and eating disorders in young women.#8232;每一个迪士尼电影中的公主形象都是又瘦又小,只有白雪公主是个例外,也许是因为20世纪30年代的审美观点与现在截然不同吧。并不是苗条的女人才更惹人喜爱,更何况纤细到如此夸张的地步简直荒谬到极点。(例如电影《大力士》中墨伽拉的纤腰真是令人难以置信)许多批评家,特别是女权主义者对迪士尼如此描绘女性形象进行了抨击,她们声称这些形象可能会误导年轻女性,使她们患上厌食症和饮食失调症。8.Subliminal Messaging8.传递潜意识信息Disney has a track record of slipping bizarre messages into their films, mostly in the form of hidden images, but also sometimes through sound. For those who don#39;t know, subliminal messaging refers to images or sounds that pass by so fast that only your subconscious picks them up. The most notable case was announced by Disney itself on a home copy of ;The Rescuers;; as two mice ride in a sardine tin, a photograph of a topless woman can be seen in a window for several frames. Disney were quick to lay the blame on editors for planting the image as a joke (of course), and recalled all copies of the film.在迪士尼电影中的确隐藏着一些怪异信息,大多是隐蔽的图像,但也有可能是声音。那些神秘的潜意识信息通过图像或者声音快速展现出来,你只能下意识注意到这些内容。其中最著名的莫过于家庭录影带版《救难小英雄》召回事件,在这部动画片播放到两只老鼠骑在沙丁鱼罐头上时,一个上身全裸的女人照片出现在窗户上,而且不止一个镜头。迪斯尼随即宣称这张图片是剪辑师在开玩笑时失误植入动画片中的,同时召回了全部影片。7.Sexual Harassment is Acceptable7.允许性骚扰A recurring theme for Disney princess films involves a beautiful woman being awakened by an unapproved kiss on the lips (though I guess this is slightly better than the rape found in the original Sleeping Beauty). Although it is arguable that some people wouldn#39;t mind being woken by the kiss of an impossibly handsome and wealthy prince, most women tend to reject this idea. In both Snow White and Sleeping Beauty, however, the women tend not to take the harassment too badly; in fact both characters marry these potential rapists after their respective rude awakenings.有一个情节在迪士尼公主系列电影中反复出现,那就是意外之吻唤醒沉睡中的美女(这是《睡美人》中的一个情节,我想性骚扰总比强奸要好得多吧)。虽然在这一点上略有争议,有些人不介意让英俊又富有的王子吻醒自己,但是大多数女性对于这种情节持否定态度。然而,白雪公主和睡美人并不太讨厌这种性骚扰,事实上,两个人醒来后还各自嫁给了这两位无礼的潜在强奸犯。6.Importance of Social Status6.社会地位的重要性Disney heroes and villains are almost always high in the social hierarchy when compared to others. The plot structure of ;Cinderella; revolves around a woman who manages to escape her terrible living conditions simply by marrying a wealthy man. Her success is down to her attractiveness in comparison to her hideous stepsisters. This sense of entitlement amongst central characters is consistent in almost every Disney film. So-called ;Prince Charming; characters are so valued for their wealth and power that they can get away with basically anything. Imagine a reversal of the roles: replace Prince Phillip from ;Sleeping Beauty; with Philoctetes, a minor socially-inferior character from ;Hercules;. I wager most women would wake up to a kiss from Philoctetes screaming ;Rape!; at the top of their voices, rather than ;Let#39;s get married!;在迪士尼电影中,英雄们的社会地位总是比坏蛋们要高。《灰姑娘》的故事告诉我们一个女人只要嫁给有钱人就可以飞上枝头变凤凰。她之所以会成功,是因为与两个丑陋的继相比,她更有魅力。几乎每一部迪士尼电影中的主角都具有这种权利意识。那些;白马王子;们非常看重自己的财富和权力,他们拥有了财富和权力就能得到全世界。我们反过来设想一下:假设把《睡美人》中的菲利普王子和《大力士》中社会地位低下的小角色菲罗克忒忒斯互换角色,我敢打赌大部分女性在菲罗克忒忒斯的亲吻中苏醒之后都会以最高分贝尖叫道;强奸啊!;而不是娇羞地说;我们结婚吧!;翻译:高陈影 编辑:陈艳冲 来源:前十网 /201509/399983

  War of Eight Princes八王之乱The War of the Eight Princes or Rebellion of the Eight Kings was a civil war for power among princes or kings of the Chinese Jin Dynasty from AD 291 to AD 306.八王之乱是皇子和君王之间对于权力的一场内战,这场战争自公元291年持续到公元306年。It devastated the country and triggered the Wu Hu ravaging.它不仅毁掉了国家还引发了“五胡乱华”。The term stemmed from biographies of eight princes collected in chapter 59 of the“ History of Jin Dynasty”(Jinshu).“八王之乱”的说法来源于《晋书》第59章的《八王传记》。The resultant winner was last surviving major prince, Sima Yue.最终的胜利者是活到最后的王子——司马岳。The struggle depopulated northern China and greatly weakened the strength of the Jin Dynasty.战争使中国北方的人口减少并削弱了晋朝的实力。The eight princes included:八位王子包括:Sima Liang (司马亮),son of Sima Yi (司马懿), titled the Prince of Runan (汝南王)司马懿的儿子,淮南王司马亮;Sima Wei (司马讳),son of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Chu (楚王).晋武帝的儿子,楚王司马玮;Sima Lun (司马伦),son of Sima Yi, fitted the Prince of Zhao (赵王).司马懿的儿子,赵王司马伦;Sima Jiong (司马冏),nephew of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Qi(齐王).晋武帝的侄子,齐王司马冏;Sima Ying (司马颖),son of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Chengdu(成都王).晋武帝的儿子,成都王司马颖;Sima Yi (司马乂),son of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Changsha(长沙王).晋武帝的儿子,长沙王司马乂;Sima Yong (司马颙),distant cousin of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Hejian.(河间王).晋武帝的堂兄弟,河间王司马颙;Sima Yue (司马越),distant cousin of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Donghai (东海王).晋武帝的堂兄弟,东海王司马岳。 /201510/398402


  What is obesity? We all know it when we see it but do we know what causes it? Many people think that obesity is down to laziness and greed. Obesity is, however, more serious than someone carrying a few extra pounds. It is a medical, life limiting condition and people who suffer from it deserve help and support. Obesity is an issue for one in three Americans and the AMA took the decision in order to impact on the way doctors and other medical professionals approach those suffering from the disease. Many other health issues (Type II Diabetes and Heart Disease) are linked to or made worse by obesity so treating and preventing obesity should have a positive effect on instances of many other conditions. In Sweden it has been accepted that obesity is increasingly prevalent, particularly amongst young people and as such policy makers need to look at targeting the problem and its associated social, personal and economic costs. The American Medical Association (AMA) took the decision, on June 18, 2013, to classify obesity as a disease. This was a controversial decision that is still being debated today. The debate gives rise to strong feelings on both sides. Here are our 10 reasons why obesity is a disease.大家都很清楚什么是肥胖,但是对于产生肥胖的原因,却鲜有人了解。很多人把肥胖的原因归结于懒惰、贪婪。事实上,肥胖远不是身上多长了几磅肉那么简单。严格说来,肥胖是一种医疗疾病,肥胖者的日常生活非常因肥胖变得很不方便,他们应该得到大家的帮助与持。每三个美国人当中就会有一个患有肥胖症,美国医疗学会(AMA)决定要协助医生以及其他医疗工作人员帮助肥胖症患者脱离这种疾病的困扰。肥胖会引发许多其他健康问题,还会使病情恶化(如:2型糖尿病和心脏病),因此在身体患有其他健康问题的情况下预防和治疗肥胖百利而无一害。在瑞典,肥胖症非常普遍,尤其是在青年人中,因此,政府需要着手寻找解决问题的方法,并查明其会牵涉到的社会、个人、以及经济上的代价。2013年6月18日,美国医疗学会将肥胖症列入疾病范畴。一直以来,社会各界对该决定争论不休,引起正反两方强烈反响。以下即为肥胖属于疾病范畴的10个原因。10.Obesity Has Always Been Treated As a Disease10.肥胖始终被社会各界视为一种病As far back as the Ancient Greeks Hippocrates defined obesity as a disease noting that it could case impotence and sexual problems. Plutarch exhorted people to avoid indulging in delicacies and Galen invented the #39;fat camp#39; when he #39;reduced a huge fat fellow to moderates size…by making him run every morning until he fell into a profuse sweat#39;.早在古希腊时期,希波克拉底就已把肥胖列入疾病范畴,且发现其会造成性无能等问题。希腊的历史学家普鲁塔克告诫人们不要纵情于美味佳肴。希腊名医伽林也成立了一个“减肥营”,通过让那些过度肥胖的人每天晨跑至汗流浃背来使他们“从大胖子转变为体格正常之人”。By the 17th Century English Doctors were calling obesity a disease. They thought it was caused by a malfunction of the internal organs. Obesity has always been identified as a problem; however, historically it has been a problem that is the preserve of the rich. As Oliver Twist says in the song #39;Rich gentlemen have it boys…indigestion!#39; Today many parts of the world are, by historic standards, incredibly rich and have a food security that is unparalleled. With this improved food security come related food problems.到了17世纪,英国医生把肥胖症归为一种疾病。他们认为肥胖是由人体内部器官功能“失灵”引起。肥胖一直以来都被视为一种病,但人们一直都认为它是富人专属。就如《雾都孤儿》里的一句歌谣所云:“有钱的老爷都是吃到消化不良呀……” 跟以前相比,现今有钱人太多了,而且食品安全问题也比以前好太多。然而在这种情况下,还是会有饮食问题——肥胖饮食。9.Doctors Say It Is9.医生认为肥胖属于疾病Doctors are experts in disease and how to cure it. If they say something is a disease we should listen to them! The AMA decided it was a disease in 2013 and the FDA, American College of Gastroenterology and the American Heart Association, amongst others, all agree. Nor is the US the only country where doctors make this claim. In Malaysia Dr Tee E Siong o the Nutrition Society of Malaysia and Professor Dr Mohd Ismail Noor of the Malaysian Society for the Study of Obesity say it should be referred to as a disease #39;so that the public can be more aware of the dangers of the condition#39;. Obesity Australia is also campaigning for formal recognition of obesity as a disease to #39;remove stigma and reduce obesity rates.#39;医生是研究疾病并找寻治疗方法的人。所以医生说某一种症状应列入疾病范畴时,我们就应该相信!美国医疗学会于2003年把肥胖列入疾病范畴,对此,美国食品及药物、美国肠胃病学院、美国心脏病协会等组织都十分持这一举措。美国不是唯一一个赞同把肥胖列为疾病的国家。马来西亚营养协会的Tee E. Siong士和马来西亚肥胖研究所的Mohd Ismail Noor教授都认为,将肥胖与疾病联系起来,公众会更容易意识到肥胖的威胁性。澳大利亚肥胖协会也正在努力争取把肥胖症归为正式的疾病,以达到“减少耻辱和降低肥胖率”的目的。8.The World Health Organisation Says It Is8.世界卫生组织说肥胖是病Obesity was aly formally classified as a disease by The World Health Organisation when it was founded (back in 1948). Obesity was, however, ignored for a long time as it was seen to be a problem of the developed world. By 1988 the World Health Organisation Obesity Report showed that obesity was becoming a worldwide problem. WHO#39;s factsheet #39;Obesity and Overweight#39; gives advice to individuals, society and food manufacturers on how to combat obesity and other related #39;noncommunicable#39; diseases.肥胖在1948年的时候就被世界卫生组织列为一种疾病。然而,在相当长的时间里,肥胖一直为人所忽视,它被认为是发达国家才有的问题。直到1988年,世界卫生组织肥胖报告表明,肥胖正成为全球性问题。世界卫生组织的“肥胖与超重”实况报告在关于如何对抗肥胖症和别的相关“非传染性疾病方面给个人、社会和食品制造商列出了许多建议。”7.Obesity Can Be Inherited7.肥胖可以遗传No matter how healthy a lifestyle, how well people eat, some people are simply predisposed to be obese. People who suffer from conditions such as Prader-Willi Syndrome or a congenital condition such as hyperthyroidism are likely to be obese – sometimes from a young age.不论人们生活方式多么健康,饮食多么合理,有些人就是容易胖。患有威利综合症或者先天性疾病的人群,例如,甲状腺机能亢进症患者,更倾向于患有肥胖,有时甚至年纪轻轻就会很肥胖。Even if you do not have markers for any particular syndrome it is possible to be predisposed to obesity. If both your parents are obese you have an 80% chance of being obese yourself. There are more than 41 genes that predispose people to obesity. Why is this? There are survival benefits to obesity – if you can store up energy in the good times you are more likely to survive a period of famine. This so called #39;thrifty gene#39; was a great benefit in century#39;s past. A modern day #39;paleo#39; diet may be all very well but it is not the answer for everyone. Even in prehistoric times there were some people who were predisposed to be obese. Many of the #39;Venus#39; figurines recovered from the time show women with large breasts, stomachs and buttocks. These figurines may demonstrate the #39;desired optimum#39; i.e. large is beautiful but even if that is the case the optimum had to exist for the artists to be aware of it. Put simply some cave men were obese and that genetic predisposition has been passed on to their descendants – us!即使你没有任何特殊症状,你也还是有可能患上肥胖症。如果你的父母都肥胖,那么你有80%的几率患有肥胖症。因为人体本身就有超过41种使人们更倾向于肥胖的基因。怎么会这样?因为肥胖有生存益处——如果平时储存足够能量,就可以在饥荒期间生存下来。这个所谓的“节俭基因”在过去可是非常有益的。现在我们提及的“原始饮食”也许非常好,但不适合所有人。即使在古代,也是有人更易于肥胖的。许多存留下来的“维纳斯时期”女人雕像的特征都是丰乳肥臀。这些雕像展示的也许就是当时的“完美标准”, 例如,“大”即是美。但“最美”的东西也得有懂得欣赏的艺术家。简单来说,一些洞穴人是肥胖的,他们的这种基因特性也遗传给了他们的后代——我们!6.Obesity Has an Impact on Life Expectancy6.肥胖影响寿命If someone who is not obese suffers from a condition that reduces their life expectancy most people would be comfortable labelling that condition a disease or illness. Lung Cancer is a disease whether or not the person who has it was a smoker. Cirrhosis of the liver is a disease whether or not the sufferer is a drinker. WHO states that 3.4 million adults die from obesity each year. Shockingly 65% of the world#39;s population now live in countries where obesity is more of a health risk than being underweight. The sad fact is that obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide by as much as 10 years in the most extreme cases. If any other condition had this type of major impact there would be no debate about whether or not it should be classified as a disease – indeed there would be an outcry if it was not.无论一个人是否肥胖,只要他因此而寿命缩短,人们自然就会将它标志为“疾病”。不管患者是不是烟民,肺癌都是一种疾病;不管患者是不是酒鬼,肝硬化都是一种疾病。世界卫生组织指出,每年都有340万成年人死于肥胖。让人震惊的是,现在世界有65%的人口都居住在把“肥胖”列为“危害健康”行列的国家,在这些国家肥胖造成的伤害比饮养不良还要大。更令人沮丧的是,在10年中最严重的情况下,肥胖是全球可预防性死亡的诱因之一。如果有什么能和肥胖一样产生如此大的影响,则没有人会反对把它列为“疾病”,否则贸然将肥胖列为疾病必然会引起公愤。审校:哈利 来源:前十网 /201601/420334。

  Tang Dynasty唐朝Buddhism in Tang Dynasty佛教Buddhism had been introduced to China via the Silk Road during the Western Han Dynasty (206 —24 AD).佛教在西汉时期(公元前206年——公元24年)经丝绸之路传入中国。After five hundred years of peaks and troughs, it reached its height during the tang Dynasty.经过500多年的跌宕起伏,它在唐朝达到了顶峰。Chang#39;an, the capital became the main center of Buddhist learning in East Asia.都城长安成为了僧人们在东亚学习的主要中心。Monasteries and temples were built throughout the country in order to bring the teachings to the people.修道院与寺庙在国家各处被建立来将教义传播给人民。Some of the emperors adopted Buddhism as their religion.一些帝王将佛教当做自己的宗教信仰。Due to its dominance during the Tang Dynasty, the influence of Buddhism can be seen in a variety of aspects of social life.由于其在唐朝时期的优势地位,在社会生活的各个方面我们都可以看到佛教的影响。The expansion enjoyed by the faith resulted in an increase in temples and the numbers of monks.信仰的传播导致了寺庙和僧侣数量的增加。Shaolin Monastery, one of the most famous Buddhist temples in China,中国最著名的佛教寺庙之一——少林寺,amassed wealth and influence during the Tang and became a place of pilgrimage for both monks and laymen alike.在唐朝积聚了财富和影响力并成为了僧人和俗人共同的朝圣之地。In the capital, Chang#39;an (present day Xi#39;an), Daxingshan Temple, Straw Hut Temple,在都城长安(今西安),大兴善寺、草堂寺、Xingjiao Si and Xiangji Temple still exist as witness to the glory of Buddhism during the Tang era.兴教寺和香积寺仍然见着唐朝时期佛教的光辉兴盛。The sp of Buddhism in China increased mutual understanding and links with other countries,佛在在中国的广为传播提升了与其他国家之间的互相理解与联系,promoting friendly relations and cultural exchanges.加强了友好关系和文化交流。Many monks traveled into India.许多僧人旅行至印度。The Big White Goose Pagoda and Small White Goose Pagoda serve as reminders of these famous pioneers,大雁塔和小雁塔就是这些著名先驱者的印,such as Monk Xuanzang (602—664),who was a prominent Buddhist traveler and translator and Monk Yijing.比如玄奘(602——664)——杰出的僧旅人和翻译家以及僧人奕经。Xuanzang, concerned by the diversification of Buddhism at home, decided to go to India in order to study original texts and teachings.玄奘意识到国内佛教的多样化之后,决定前往印度学习最原始的著作和教义。He left Chang#39;an in 629 to make his pilgrimage.他于629年离开长安开始他的朝圣。After seventeen years of untold hardships and a journey of some 50 000 kilometers,经过17年不为人知的艰辛与超过500000公里的行程,Xuanzang returned to China bringing with him a large volume of Buddhist scriptures.玄奘回到了中国,带回了大量的佛教经书。He then spent twelve years at the Da Ci#39;en Temple translating the scriptures.接着,他用12年时间在大慈恩寺翻译这些著作。The famous novel A Journey to the West is based on his true story.著名小说《西游记》就是根据他的真实故事写成的。Another famous monk worthy of mention is Jianzhen (688—763).另一个值得一提的僧人是鉴真(688——763)。He was invited to preach in Japan and finally arrived there after five abortive attempts to undertake the journey there.他受邀前往日本讲道,在经历了五次未完成的行程后最终到达目的地。His statue is still enshrined in some Japanese temples to this day.他的塑像在今日仍被供奉在日本的一些寺庙里。 /201511/405223

  Liu Zongyuan (773~819) was a Chinese writer who lived in Chang#39;an during the Tang Dynasty. He was traditionally classed as one of the Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song.柳宗元(773~819),中国唐代作家,唐宋八大家之一。Along with Han Yu, he was a founder of the Classical Prose Movement.他居于长安,与韩愈一起发起了古文运动。His civil service career was initially successful, but in 805 he fell from favour because of his association with a failed reformist movement. He was exiled first to Yongzhou (Hunan Province ), and then to Liuzhou (Guangxi Province).柳宗元的官场生活起初非常成功,但是805年他因与一场不成功的改革派运动有关而失宠,首先被贬到永州(湖南境内),之后又被贬到柳州(广西境内)。However, this setback allowed his literary career to flourish: he produced poems, fables, reflective travelogues and essays sythesizing elements of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.然而,官场上的挫折却使得柳宗元的文学事业繁荣了起来: 他创作了诗歌、寓言、游记以及融合了儒释道思想元素的散文。Liu Zongyuan produced many examples of clear and charming prose and became reputed as one of the renowned ;Eight Masters of Tang and Song.;柳宗元写了许多清晰迷人的散文,成为著名的唐宋八大家之一。柳宗元最著名的游记是《永州八记》。His best-known travel pieces are the Eight Records of Excursions in Yongzhou. Around 180 of his poems are extant.现存柳诗约180首。Some of his works celebrate his freedom from office, while others mourn his banishment.尽管他的一些作品中对遭贬表示遗憾,但是他的一些作品也表明他很庆幸自己能够远离官场。 /201601/422051

  Marriage is much more complicated than love – different backgrounds, lifestyles, habits and values can lead to quarrels and misunderstanding when a couple weds.婚姻比恋爱要复杂的多。情侣步入婚姻殿堂后,不同的背景、生活方式、习惯和价值观都可能导致争吵和误解。Recent news of a middle-class Shanghainese woman who broke up with her peasant boyfriend over Spring Festival went viral on Chinese social media. The 26-year-old local girl was dating a migrant worker from a poor village in Jiangxi Province, but after being invited back to his ancestral home for a traditional Chinese lunar new year holiday, she immediately dumped him once she saw the humble dinner prepared by his relatives. She even publicly shared her experience on the Internet, along with a photo of the food she was served. What are foreigners#39; take on the incident?最近,一则上海中等家庭女生,春节和农村男友分手的新闻在中国媒体上闹得沸沸扬扬。这个26岁的上海女生与从江西贫穷农村来上海工作的男生谈恋爱,男友邀请她去老家过年,但在看到男友家人准备的简朴年夜饭后,女生立刻决定分手。她还在网上公开了这段经历,附上了一张年夜饭的照片。那么外国朋友们对这件事都持什么样的看法呢?Howard Whiteson from the UK said it was wrong of the girl to suddenly leave. ;It lacks sensibility. She knew her boyfriend was from a village. So she should have accepted the food, then broken up at a better time,; he said.来自英国的霍华德·怀特森表示,女生突然离开的做法是不对的。“太无情了,她知道男友家是农村的,所以她应当接受那顿饭,然后找一个更合适的时机分手。”他说。;The girl#39;s reaction of leaving the table and immediately breaking up with her boyfriend is extreme and radical. Why didn#39;t she just share her feelings with her boyfriend instead of on her social media?; Cyril Saidah from France said.来自法国的西里尔·赛达表示:“这女生马上离席并立刻分手的反应太极端和激进了。她为什么不与男朋友交流,反而在社交媒体上发表感想?”;I think there would be a national outcry if it happened in my country, Ireland, especially how she posted it publicly to display his family#39;s poor situation. It reflects a big gap and little empathy between the rich and the poor in China,; said an Irish citizen in Shanghai.“我觉得如果这事发生在我的国家爱尔兰,一定会引起全国人民的强烈抗议,尤其是她公开表明男友家庭的贫困状况。这事反映了中国贫富之间巨大的差距和缺乏同情。”一位在上海的爱尔兰人说道。;I totally don#39;t agree with the reaction of the girl, because even if she didn#39;t want to continue dating this guy, she didn#39;t have to humiliate his parents,; said Olga Portnova from Kazakhstan.“我完全不同意这个女生的做法,即便她不想和男生继续谈恋爱了,也没必要羞辱他的父母。”来自哈萨克斯坦的奥尔加波特诺娃说。Some expats the Global Times spoke with are married to a Chinese spouse and have firsthand experiences when it comes to cultural differences. The Global Times also asked these same foreigners to expound on their impression of Chinese dating and marriage.谈到文化差异,环球时报采访了一些与中国人结婚的海外移民,他们有着最直接的体验。环球时报还邀请这些外国朋友谈谈他们对中国恋爱和婚姻的印象。;Compared to the West, people in China mostly marry for money rather than feelings. Most of the time it#39;s only because of their parents#39; influence. But this is like how France was 60 years ago, so eventually China will also change,; said Oscar.“与西方相比,中国人大部分为了钱而不是感情而结婚。大部分情况下,这仅仅是由于他们父母的影响。但这就像60年前的法国,所以中国最终也会改变。”奥斯卡说。;Making assumptions and having strong opinions can hurt opportunities for change. The girl should look at what the boy can become instead of where he came from and what he was in the past. Just because everybody uses AC power now does not mean they will in the future,; said Derek Cowburn from the US.“妄自猜测以及表达强烈意见可能会破坏改变的机会。这个女生应该看到男友的未来,而不是他来自哪里和他的过去。现在每个人都用交流电,但这并不代表他们在将来也会用。”来自美国的德里克库布伦说。;From my understanding, many times the choice in China is based on financial and education criteria before true love. But I believe everybody should be humble and respectful toward each other. Class differences should not be a deal breaker if the couple really loves each other,; said Saidah.“按照我的理解,中国很多婚姻都是基于经济和教育水平,而不是真爱。但我认为每个人应当对他人保持谦逊和尊重。如果这对情侣真的彼此相爱,家庭条件不同并不应当成为感情的阻碍。”赛达说。In the case of the Shanghai woman, it was obviously important for her to find a significant other who has a matching family background, but for the foreigners interviewed, this does not seem to be so important.对于这则新闻中的上海女生来说,很显然她认为找到一个家庭背景相当的另一半很重要,但对接受采访的外国人来说,这个条件似乎并没有那么重要。;I think it#39;s fine for people of different classes to date and marry. There are many examples of this in the West. If love is strong then class shouldn#39;t matter. But it can also eventually create conflict,; said Whiteson.“我认为不同阶层的人们相恋结婚挺好的。在西方国家这种例子很多。如果感情到位,阶层无所谓,但最终还是可能产生冲突。”怀特森说。;There is no reason people from different family backgrounds and classes should not date or marry. Most societies are not like the Indian caste system, in which there is no mixing allowed,; said Saidah. ;In French we even have a saying that goes #39;opposites attract.#39; Meeting and mixing with different people is very rewarding and helps us become more open-minded,; he said.“来自不同家庭背景和不同阶层的人不应当约会和结婚-这根本没道理。大多数社会并不像印度种姓制度那样,不允许不同种姓的人结婚。”赛达说。“在法国我们甚至有#39;不同阶层相互吸引#39;的说法。与不同的人种相识并结婚非常有益,使我们变得更加开明。”他说。 /201602/427124

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