时间:2017年12月13日 13:32:01

One day, the teacher inquired Peter: ;How much is four minus four?; Peter was tongue-tied. the teacher got angry and said: ;What a fool! You see, if I put four coins in your pocket, but there is a hole in your pocket and all of them leak out, now what is left in your pocket?; ;The hole,; replied Peter.一天,都是问彼德:“四减四等于几?”彼德张口结舌答不上来。 老师生气地说:“真笨!你想,如果我放四个硬币在你的口袋里,但你的口袋里有个窟窿,结果四个硬币都漏掉了。那么,你的口袋里还有什么?” “窟窿,”彼德答道。 /201210/206550

Stories abound of business leaders who don#39;t sleep much. Martha Stewart has claimed to sleep about four hours a night, as has Indra Nooyi, the CEO of PepsiCo (PEP). Her predecessor, Steve Reinemund, has gotten up around 5 a.m. to run 4 miles most mornings of his life after going to bed around 11. ;I sleep normally between five, six hours,; he said in an interview. ;I#39;ve never gotten more.; But it seems to be enough: ;Most of the time I don#39;t wake up with an alarm.;企业高管精力旺盛、每天睡眠时间很少,这样的故事我们听得太多了。玛莎#8226;斯图尔特自称每晚睡4小时,百事公司(PepsiCo)首席执行官卢英德也一样。卢英德的前任雷孟夫一直以来差不多每晚都是11点左右入睡,第二天一早5点左右就起床,跑上4英里。“我一般都睡5、6个小时,”他在一次接受采访时说。“没睡过更长时间。”但似乎已经足够了:“大多时候,我都不需要闹铃,自己就会醒来。”Is not needing much sleep a secret to success — giving people a chance to work long hours and still have a life?少睡点是成功的秘诀吗?因为睡得少就可以长时间工作,同时依然能够保持个人生活?Well, maybe. According to David Volpi, a sleep specialist and founder of Eos Sleep (formerly the Manhattan Snoring and Sleep Center), adults generally need six to eight hours a night. That means that some people, like Reinemund (now dean at the Wake Forest University Schools of Business), can do fine on just six hours. ;If you get six hours a night and feel well-rested when you wake up and don#39;t get tired throughout the day, that kind of tells you,; he says. ;Your body will tell you if you don#39;t get enough sleep.;也许吧。Eos Sleep(前身即Manhattan Snoring and Sleep Center)的创始人、睡眠专家戴维#8226;沃尔皮称,成人通常每晚需要6-8小时的睡眠时间。这意味着有些人,像雷孟夫【现为维克森林大学(Wake Forest University)商学院院长】,只睡6小时确实也可以。“如果你一晚上睡6小时,醒来时感觉休息好了,整天也不累,那就没问题,”他说。“睡眠不足的话,身体自然会告诉你。”The good news? If you do need eight hours, plenty of people have found ways to be successful and still sleep almost as much as the average American (who, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics#39; American Time Use Survey, is clocking 8.67 hours of sleep on an average day).好消息是什么?好消息就是,就算你真的需要8小时睡眠,很多虽然每天睡眠的时间达到了美国人的均水平【美国劳动统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)的美国人时间利用调查显示,美国人平均每天睡8.67个小时】,但他们同样找到了成功之道。Mana Ionescu runs Lightspan Digital, a Chicago-based digital marketing company. As an entrepreneur, she thought she should sleep less and work more. ;Somehow people find it heroic to not sleep and brag about it too,; she says. But then ;I got behind the wheel after a night without sleep and got into a fender bender.;曼纳#8226;伊奥尼斯古经营着芝加哥一家数字营销公司Lightspan Digital。作为一个企业家,她认为自己应该减少睡眠时间,增加工作时间。“不知怎么回事,人们认为不睡觉很了不起,还喜欢到处吹嘘,”她说。但后来,“经过一个无眠夜之后,我开车出了个小事故。”The accident wasn#39;t major, ;but I wasted many hours of my life as a result.; She#39;s practiced good sleep hygiene ever since, going to bed at 11 and waking up at 7. ;Everything has changed,; she says. ;I am able to work more, decisions are easier to make, business is easier to close. I#39;ve been running half marathons and solved problems that before seemed almost impossible to solve.; In other words, she#39;s making better use of her hours, even if she#39;s awake for fewer of them.事故并不严重,“但浪费了我很多时间”。从此以后,她一直坚持良好的睡眠习惯,每晚11点上床,早上7点起床。“从此,一切都不同了,”她说。“现在我可以完成更多的工作,更容易下决断,更容易达成业务。能跑完半程马拉松,能解决过去似乎不可能解决的问题。”换言之,现在她能更好地利用时间,尽管她醒着的时间减少了。Jane Glazer, who owns QCI Direct, a multi-title catalog firm with 100 employees, is usually in bed by 10:30 pm and up around 6:30 am. While there#39;s always the temptation to answer one more email before bed, ;you can#39;t function and lead a company being sleep deprived,; she says. ;In the early years of my business, I did try to get by with less, but I quickly learned I would burn out by mid-afternoon.;简#8226;格雷泽拥有一家员工100人的目录公司QCI Direct。她通常每晚10点半上床睡觉,早上6点半左右起床。虽然临睡前她总是忍不住想再多回一封邮件,但“睡眠不足肯定没法正常工作,也没法领导一家公司,”她说。“刚开始创业的时候,我确实尝试过减少睡眠,但很快就意识到,这样一来,到了下午会精力不。” /201203/175974

Our emotional world has a remarkable power to determine not only our mental health, but also how our physical well-being。我们的情感世界有一种强大的力量,不仅决定我们的精神健康,还决定我们的身体健康。Here are five positive emotions that have been shown to improve physical health and prevent disease。以下这5种积极的情绪都表明能改善身体健康,预防疾病。Optimism may protect the heart。乐观能保护心脏。A growing body of research has suggested that cultivating this quality can have a protective effect on the heart. According to a 2012 review of literature, a number of studies have shown that people with optimistic personalities are at a reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Optimism#39;s benefits for physical health also extend beyond heart health. Here are a few other ways that a sunny disposition may improve health outcomes, including improved immune system function and increased longevity。越来越多的身体方面的研究表明,培养乐观的心态对心脏有保护作用。回顾2012年的文献,很多研究都表明具有乐观性格的人患心血管疾病的风险降低了。乐观对身体健康的好处也不仅限于心脏健康,开朗的性情能改善几种健康状况,包括提高免疫机能,延长寿命。Experiencing awe reduces inflammatory markers associated with autoimmune disease。敬畏的心态能有助于减少与自身免疫疾病有关的炎症因子。Research has shown that experiences of art, religion and philosophy are the most common experiences that evoke a sense of awe -- that sense of wonder and connection to something larger than ourselves。研究表明,艺术、宗教和哲学的体验是最常见的能唤起敬畏感的体验——也就是惊奇感和与比自己更强大的事物的联系。According to new research from the University of California at Berkeley, awe is not only pleasurable but also enormously beneficial for one#39;s physical and mental health. The Berkeley study found that those who had recently experienced awe had lower levels of cytokines, inflammatory markers that, in chronically high levels, have been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases, as well as other health problems including heart disease, Alzheimer#39;s and depression. This suggests that awe promotes healthier levels of cytokines and may prevent disease。根据加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的新研究,敬畏不仅使人身心舒畅,而且对人的身心健康大有裨益。伯克利的这项研究发现,近期产生过敬畏心理的人细胞生长抑制素,也就是炎症因子的水平更低,炎症因子水平长期较高的话,就会造成自身免疫疾病和其他健康问题,包括心脏病、阿兹海默症和抑郁症。这表明敬畏可以促使细胞生长抑制素达到更健康的水平,以及预防疾病。Compassion and care for others can improve vagus nerve function。同情关心别人能改善迷走神经功能。Positive psychologist Barbara Frederickson has conducted research on the effects of lovingkindness meditation (LKM), a traditional Buddhist practice that involves meditating on love and extending compassion to oneself and a progressively large group of others. Frederickson found just six weeks of LKM training to have a positive impact on the vagus nerve, which extends from the brain stem to the heart, helping to regulate emotions as well as bodily systems including the cardiovascular and digestive systems。积极心理学家巴巴拉弗雷德里克森研究了仁爱冥想(LKM)的效果,这是一种传统的佛教练习,是对爱的冥想,把同情延伸到自己身上,再逐渐扩展到更多其他人身上。弗雷德里克森发现仅6周的仁爱冥想训练就对迷走神经有积极影响,能从脑干传到心脏,有助于调节情绪和包括心血管和消化系统在内的身体系统。Gratitude may also benefit heart health and immune system function。感恩也有利于心脏健康和免疫系统功能。Like optimism, an ;attitude of gratitude; -- an appreciation and feeling of thankfulness for the blessings one has in life -- carries significant mental and physical health benefits. Gratefulness, like optimism, has been linked with improved immune health, and has also been shown to improve sleep quality. Gratitude may also improve health and well-being in a variety of ways insofar as it lowers stress levels -- stress being one of the main contributing factors to many chronic diseases。像乐观的心态一样,“感恩的态度”——对生活中所拥有的眷顾的欣赏和感谢——对身心健康大有好处。感恩像乐观一样,可以改善免疫系统健康,也表明能提高睡眠质量。感恩还能在很多方面改善健康和幸福,因为它能帮助减压——压力是导致很多慢性病的主要因素之一。Self-compassion improves health-related behaviors。自我怜悯有助于改善与健康有关的行为。People who cultivate kindness towards themselves are also kinder to their bodies, potentially helping them to prevent or manage a range of negative physical and mental health outcomes. A 2013 study published in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin examined the relationship between self-compassion, reactions to illness, and a range of health-related behaviors, finding that self-compassionate people sought medical attention sooner for symptoms that they were experiencing than people who were lacking in self-compassion. Self-compassionate people also tended to be less depressed about health problems they were experiencing, and also to take a more proactive approach towards their own health。对自己仁慈的人对自己的身体更仁慈,对预防或控制一系列消极的身心健康状况有潜在的帮助。2013年刊登在《个性与社会心理学公报》的一项研究测试了自我怜悯、对疾病的反应和一系列与健康有关的行为之间的关系,发现自我怜悯的人出现病症时会比缺乏自我怜悯的人更早地去看医生。自我怜悯的人对正遭受的健康问题也不那么沮丧,也会更积极地面对自己的健康。 /201508/390216

Laying up for a solid night's sleep might not sound like the best recipe for weight loss, but loads of research has pointed to the importance of sufficient shut-eye to losing weight. And a small new study shows that not getting enough sleep might severely cut into people's ability to lose extra fat. 想减肥就要把觉睡好,这在减肥的人看来好像不是个好方案。但是,大量研究已经指出,充足的睡眠对减肥的很严重。下面有一个小型研究,展示了睡眠不足可能会严重影响人体消去多余脂肪的能力。 Researchers found that if dieters got a full night's rest, they more than doubled the amount of weight lost from fat reserves. So even though subjects lost about as much weight when they were sleep deprived as when they were well-rested, only about a quarter of the weight lost during the short sleep period was from fat. Tired-eyed dieters also reported feeling hungrier than they did when they had gotten enough sleep. Results of the study were published online October 4 in Annals of Internal Medicine. 研究人员发现如果节食的人晚上睡得好,减肥效果会好不止一倍。所以,尽管减肥的人在睡眠不足和睡眠充足时减掉的重量一样多,但是在睡眠不足时,减掉的重量中,仅仅只有1/4是脂肪。睡眠不足的节食者也说,他们感觉比睡眠充足的时候要饿。这项研究的结果发布在了10月4日的“内科年鉴”网络上。 "Cutting back on sleep, a behavior that is ubiquitous in modern society, appears to compromise efforts to lose fat," Plamen Penev, an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Chicago and study co-author, said in a prepared statement. Study subjects lost about 55 percent more fat when they got ample sleep at night. 在Chicago大学的医学助理教授,也是这篇研究的合著人Plamen Penev在一份事先准备好的的发言中说道:“当今社会,普遍认为减少睡眠是减掉脂肪的一个妥协方法。”但是在我们实验中志愿者,他们在获得充足的夜间睡眠时,脂肪多减了55%。 For the study, 10 overweight volunteers (ages 35 to 49 with a mean body-mass index of 27.4 kilograms) started a personalized diet plan that reduced calories (to an average of about 1,450 per day) but maintained a sedentary lifestyle. For two weeks, subjects reported to the lab to spend 8.5 hours a night in bed (with an average sleep time of about seven hours and 25 minutes), and during a second two-week period—either three months before or after the 8.5-hour nights—the same volunteers were allowed only 5.5 hours a night in bed (with an average sleep time of five hours and 14 minutes). 为了这项研究,对10个肥胖志愿者(年龄在35岁到49岁之间,平均体重指数是27.4千克)开展一项个体化节食计划,可以降低热量(平均每天降低1450卡),但要保持久坐的生活方式。有一个两周的时间,志愿者们每晚在床上8.5小时(有效的平均睡眠时间大约是7小时25分),另一个2周的观察期-可以在早于或晚于8.5小时测验的3个月之前或之后-还是这些志愿者,让他们每晚在床上5.5小时(平均有效睡眠时间是5小时14分)。 During both study sessions, the subjects lost about three kilograms each. Nearly half of that (1.4 kg) was from fat when the volunteers were sleeping long, but less than a fifth (0.6 kg) of the lost weight was from fat when they got less than six hours of sleep. The rest of the weight was fat-free body mass, which includes other components such as water or muscle, and is generally not the target of those seeking to lose weight. 在这两个实验中,志愿者们每人一共减掉大约3公斤体重:有接近一半(1.4千克)是在长睡眠阶段减掉的,仅有小于1/5(0.6千克)是在短睡眠阶段减掉的。其余减掉的重量来自去脂组织,例如包括水和肌肉,而它通常不是减肥者的目标。 Food cravings and metabolism are controlled in part by hormones, such as ghrelin, which stimulates hunger and lowers energy use. And when the study subjects were getting less than six hours of sleep a night, their ghrelin levels rose from 75 nanograms per liter to 84 ng per liter. Levels remained steady when subjects got plenty of rest. The volunteers were on the same tightly controlled low-calorie diet during both phases of the study, and the weight- and fat-loss difference between adequate sleep and too little sleep might otherwise be even more pronounced, the researchers behind the study speculated. 食欲和新陈代谢部分是由激素控制的,比如胃促生长素。它能刺激食欲、降低能量消耗。当志愿者在每晚睡眠少于6小时的情况下,他们的胃促生长素水平从75纳克/升,升高到84纳克/升,而在睡眠充足时胃促生长素的水平则保持稳定。研究人员认为,从另一方面看,由于志愿者是处于同等严格的低卡饮食控制下,所以充足睡眠和缺少睡眠对体重和脂肪消耗的影响就更显著了。 So despite any extra calories a person might burn while burning the midnight oil, losing sleep is hardly the best way to lose fat, this study suggests. "If your goal is to lose fat, skipping sleep is like poking sticks in your bicycle wheels," Penev said. "One should not ignore the way they sleep when going on a diet." Plenty of other research also suggests that getting enough sleep is also crucial for good long-term health in general. 所以,这个研究就是告诉大家,不管一个人在熬夜的时候消耗了多少热量,减少睡眠都不是减肥的最好方法。Penev说道:“如果为了减肥而不睡觉,就是在拖减肥的后腿”还说道“人们不应因减肥而不顾正确的睡眠习惯”,很多其他研究也表明,通常来说,保持充足的睡眠对人们长远的健康也是很重要的。 /201110/157211

文章编辑: 专家手机