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楼主:光明养生 时间:2018年02月25日 23:53:13 点击:0 回复:0
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Origins of Inebriation Revealed揭示醉酒的起源This cuneiform text dates back to the 6th year ofprince Lugalanda who ruled about 2370 B.C. in southern Mesopotamia.It is an administrative document concerning deliveries of three sorts of beer to different recipients 这种楔形文字的历史可以追溯到公元前2370年左右,王子卢加尔安达在美索不达米亚南部统治的第六年。它是一种行政文书,将三种啤酒传递到不同的人手中。In prehistoric Eurasia,drugs and alcohol were originally reserved for ritual ceremonies, and weren#39;tused merely to satisfy hedonistic motives, a new study suggests. What#39;s more,given the sacred role of the substances, their use was likely highly regulatedand only available to elite citizens.一项新的研究表明,在史前的欧亚大陆时期,毒品和酒精的最初用于宗教仪式,而不是仅用来满足人们享乐。更重要的是,考虑到这些物质神圣的角色,它们的使用几乎是受到高度控制的,仅供给于杰出公民。Many Eurasian cultures are known to have anancient history with psychoactive substances, as evidenced by early writtendocuments. The Greek historian Herodotus, for example, once described theScythians#39; (Iranian equestrian tribes) post-funeral purification ceremonyinvolving hemp, which dates back to the fifth century B.C.据早期的书面文件明,许多欧亚文化是已公认拥有一种精神活性物质的古代历史。例如,希腊历史学家希罗多德曾经描述斯基泰(伊朗马术部落)葬礼的净化仪式中涉及大麻,而这可追溯到公元前第五世纪。But written records aren#39;t the onlyindication of early drug and alcohol use.但是文字记录并不是早期使用药物和酒精的唯一痕迹。;It is generally thought thatmind-altering substances, or at least drugs, are a modern-day issue, but if welook at the archaeological record of prehistoric Europe, there are many datasupporting their consumption,; said study author Elisa Guerra-Doce, aprehistory expert at the University of Valladolid in Spain. ;Apart fromthe presence of macrofossil remains of plants with these [mind-altering]properties, there are artistic depictions of opium poppies, for instance, andsome designs in megalithic tombs may have been inspired by altered states ofconsciousness.;“人们普遍认为,改变意识的物质,或者说是药物,是一个现代议题,但如果我们看看欧洲史前考古记录,这儿有很多数据可以明他们的假设,”该研究的作者西班牙巴利亚多利德大学史前史专家艾丽莎·格拉-多西说道,“除了存在改变意识的植物化石,还有对罂粟的艺术描绘,例如,巨石墓里的一些设计可能会激发人们改变意识形态。”Despite numerous indications,archaeologists have largely overlooked the use of mind-altering substances inEurasian prehistory. So Guerra-Doce decided to sort through the scarce andscattered information in the scientific literature, in hopes of gaining abetter understanding of the history and context of ancient drug and alcoholuse.尽管有许多迹象表明,考古学家已经在很大程度上忽略了欧亚史前使用改变思想的物质。所以格拉-多西决定整理科学文献中稀少且分散的信息,以更好地理解历史和古老药物酒精使用的文本信息。She reviewed four lines of evidence:macrofossil remains of psychoactive plants, residues from fermented alcoholicdrinks, psychoactive alkaloids (chemical compounds) on artifacts and skeletalremains, and artistic depictions of psychoactive plants and drinking scenes.她回顾了四条据:含有精神活性植物的大化石,发酵的酒精饮料残留物,文物和遗骨的活性生物碱(化合物)以及精神活性植物和饮用场景的艺术描写。Widesp use广泛使用In prehistoric sites throughout Europe, archaeologists have found the remains of numerouspsychoactive plant and fungi species, including opium poppy, deadly nightshade,hallucinogenic mushrooms and ergot fungus. However, it#39;s not always possible todetermine how people used the substances, if they did at all.在整个欧洲的史前遗址上,考古学家已经发现许多精神活性植物和真菌物种的遗址,包括鸦片罂粟,颠茄,致幻蘑菇和麦角菌。然而,如果人们都使用这种物质,决定人们使用这些物质的可能性并不大。For instance, at a Neanderthal burial caveat Shanidar, in northern Iraqdating to around 60,000 B.C., researchers discovered the remains of manymedical plant species, suggesting the grave belonged to a shaman. But otherscientists argue that a gerbil-like rodent called the Persian jird may havebrought the plants into the cave after the Neanderthal there had died.例如,追溯到公元前60000年前,在伊拉克北部的一个尼安德特人沙尼达尔墓穴中,研究人员发现,许多药用植物的遗骸,而这坟墓属于一个萨满的。但是其他科学家认为,一种长爪沙鼠类的啮齿类动物,名叫波斯沙鼠可能在尼安德特人死了后,将植物带进洞穴。Yet many archaeobotanical finds providestrong evidence for the prehistoric use of mind-altering substances. Inparticular, at an archaeological site near Bucharest, Romania,scientists found charred Cannabis seeds from plants in some tombs. The mainpsychoactive compound of marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), which is mostabundant in the female plants (Cannabis plants are typically either male orfemale, with male plants producing pollen that pollinates the seed-producingflowers of the female plant).;The presence of burnt seeds in these tombsproves that the prehistoric societies of eastern Europe were aware of this, andconsequently, they burnt female plants,; Guerra-Doce told Live Science.然而许多大型植物剂被发现并提供了强有力的据,明在史前时期人们使用过改变意识的物质。特别是,在罗马尼亚布加勒斯特附近的一个考古遗址上,科学家们在一些坟墓里发现了烧焦的大麻种子植物。大麻的主要活性化合物是四氢大麻酚(THC),这是最丰富的雌性植物(大麻植物通常是雄性或雌性,与雄性植物产生花粉,授粉的种子生产雌性花植物),“在这些墓葬中存在的烧焦种子明了东欧的史前社会已经意识到这一点,因此,他们燃烧雌性植物,”格拉-多西对生活科学说道。Alcoholic residues suggest many prehistoricEurasians drank fruit wines, mead, beer (from barley and wheat) and fermenteddrinks made from dairy products.酒精残留物暗示了许多史前欧亚的水果酒,蜂蜜酒,啤酒(大麦和小麦)和发酵饮料都产自于乳制品。The discovery of alcoholic fermentationappears to date back to about 7000 B.C. in China. By 5000 B.C., people in theZagros Mountains of northwestern Iran drank wine instilled with pineresin (for its preservative or medicinal properties). And at a site insoutheastern Armeniadating to 4000 B.C., scientists unearthed a fully equipped winery — they thinkthe wine was made for mortuary practices, considering there were 20 burialgraves, which contained drinking cups, next to the winemaking facility.在中国酒精发酵的发现原理可追溯到大约公元前7000年前。公元前5000年,在伊朗西北部的扎格罗斯山脉的人们在喝酒时逐渐滴入松树树脂(以达到防腐剂或药用性能的效果)。追溯到公元前4000年,在亚美尼亚东南部的一地区,科学家发现一个设备齐全的酒厂——他们认为酒是用来墓葬的,因为酿酒厂有20座葬墓群,坟墓里都有酒杯。Importantly, though some pottery fragmentscontaining residues of beer and wine come from settlements, most actually comefrom burial sites. ;Many tombs have provided traces of alcoholic drinksand drugs,; Guerra-Doce said. ;I think these substances were used toaid in communication with the spirit world.;重要的是,尽管一些瓷器碎片含有殖民地啤酒和葡萄酒的残留物,然而,大多数的残留物来自墓地。“许多坟墓留有酒精饮料和药物的遗迹,”格拉-多西说,”我认为这些物质是用来帮助精神世界交流的。”Some artistic representations also hint atceremonial drug and alcohol use in prehistory. One of the most revealing itemsmay be a 30-inch-tall (76 centimeters) terracotta figurineknown as the;Poppy Goddess.; The figurine, found in an almost 3000-year-old cultchamber in Crete, depicts a bare-breastedwoman with upraised arms and a head bearing three movable hairpins shaped likepoppy capsules. Certain features of the capsules suggest how opium may havebeen extracted, and the figurine displays a serene facial expression, whichsome experts interpret as depicting a trancelike state gained from inhalingopium fumes.一些艺术再现也暗示了史前时期药物和酒精用于礼仪场合。一个最明显的项目可能是一个30英寸(76厘米)高的陶瓦小雕像,被誉为“罂粟女神。”这个小塑像发现于克里特岛(希腊)的祭祀场所,已有大约3000年得历史,描绘了一个坦胸露乳的女人,她高举双手,头上插了三根像罂粟壳似的可移动簪子。胶囊的某些功能暗示了鸦片可能已经被提取,而雕像显示了一个安详的表情,一些专家解释为这是鸦片烟吸入后的恍惚状态。Only for the elite?只面向精英?Guerra-Doce#39;s analysis further suggeststhat psychoactive substances may have been reserved for the elite. ;Themain evidence to support that idea is the archaeological contexts where theyhave been found: tombs of high-status individuals and restricted ceremonialplaces,; she said.格拉-多西的分析进一步表明,精神活性物质可能是给精英保留的。” 持这个想法的主要据来是考古信息,他们已经发现:高官的坟墓和限制仪式的地方,”她说。For example, at a Bronze Age cemetery insoutheastern Spain,archaeologists have found psychoactive alkaloids of opiates in tombs of theupper class. Similarly, a luxurious tomb in another area of Spain containedevidence of the hallucinogenic alkaloid hyoscyamine, which comes from thenightshade family of plants.例如,在西班牙东南部的一个青铜时代墓地,考古学家在上层阶级的坟墓里发现的阿片类药物活性生物碱。同样,在另一个地区的西班牙豪华墓地中发现了致幻生物碱莨菪碱的据,而这些碱属于茄科植物。Alcohol also seems to have been mainly forthe upper class. One of the most impressive examples comes from the so-calledHochdorf Chieftain#39;s Grave in Germany— a Celtic burial chamber for a 40-year-old man that dates to around 530 B.C.In the princely tomb, researchers found an enormous bronze cauldron from Greece thatcontained 350 liters (92 gallons) of mead.酒精也似乎是主要为上层阶级务的。其中最引人注目的例子是来自所谓的侯赫多尔夫的酋长的坟墓---追溯到公元前530年左右,一个40岁凯尔特男子的墓室。在王侯墓前,研究人员发现了一个巨大的希腊青铜鼎,其含有350公升(92加仑)的酒。;I think that prior to a large-scaleproduction, [alcoholic drinks] were reserved for special events, and theyplayed a similar role as drug plants,; Guerra-Doce said.After large-scaleproduction became possible, alcohol likely became available to many people (notjust elites), and its use shifted from ritualistic to hedonistic in nature, sheadded.“我认为,大规模生产之前,[酒被保留用于特殊事件,植物药也发挥了类似的作用,”格拉-多西说。在大规模生产成为可能时,酒精可能提供给许多人(不只是精英),其用途在性质上说是从仪式到享乐主义,她补充说道。Drug plants, on the other hand, were nevercultivated on a large scale. And though they were also eventually consumed forhedonistic purposes, this use is difficult to observe in the archaeological record,Guerra-Doce said. ;Interestingly, the common names of some of these plantsrefer to madness, to evil spirits, to harmful effects, so I think a taboo wasimposed in order to avoid their use for hedonistic purposes,; shesaid.另一方面,植物药并没有一个大规模栽培。虽然他们也最终是达到享乐主义的目的,但是这是很难在考古记录中发现的,格拉-多西说。“有趣的是,这些植物中的一些的共同名字指的是疯狂行为,魔鬼精神,有害影响,所以我认为一个禁忌是用来避免达到享乐目的的,”她说。 /201407/310803Which is more primal, hard cider or a strawberry margarita?什么才更原始,烈性苹果酒还是草莓玛格丽塔酒?Would a self-respecting cave man check his iPhone after 8 p.m., as long as he was wearing amber goggles?一个有自尊心的穴居人会在晚上8点戴着琥珀色护目镜查看iPhone吗?What about that morning beauty regimen? Is coconut oil or castor oil more likely to restore that neo-Neanderthal glow to a woman’s cheek?晨间美容又如何?新穴居人用椰子油还是蓖麻油来为女性的面颊增色?To the uninitiated, the much talked about Paleo diet — a nutritional regimen centered around pasture-raised meat, eggs, fresh fruit and vegetables, and nuts, in the spirit of our cave-dwelling forebears — may seem like another low-carb fad, the South Beach diet dressed up in a mammoth hide. But the time has passed when it could be written off as a fringe movement of shaggy-haired Luddites with an outsize taste for wild boar meatloaf.备受关注的旧石器饮食(Paleo diet)是一种饮食养生,借鉴我们穴居人老祖先的精神,食谱上主要是牧草饲喂的肉制品和禽蛋,此外还有新鲜水果、蔬菜和坚果。不了解它的人会觉得和南海岸饮食法,即另一种低卡路里饮食没什么两样,无非是披上一层猛犸象的包装。认为它是一个蓬头垢面、反技术进步,同时又大啖野猪肉的边缘运动的时代,过去了。Lately, Paleo has charged toward the mainstream, not only as a hugely popular diet (it was most-searched diet of 2013, according to the Google Trends Zeitgeist list), but also as a cave-man-inspired lifestyle that has spawned a fast-growing industry.最近,旧石器饮食开始迈向主流,不仅是作为一种非常流行的饮食法(根据谷歌时尚热点列表,它是2013年被搜索次数最多的饮食法),也开始成为一种受原始人启发的生活方式,还带来了一个快速增长的产业。There are now glossy magazines on the Paleo lifestyle, conferences like Paleo f(x) that feature Paleo speakers and products, and vacation retreats like PrimalCon, billed as a five-day immersion into all things Paleo. There are Paleo books, action figures, beauty products, liquors, sleep masks, “barefoot” shoes and clothing, not to mention a glut of places that sell all manner of Paleo foods, including almond-flower macaroons, elk jerky and grainless granola bars.现在,有若干种关于旧石器生活方式的精美杂志;有类似“旧石器f(x)”这样的集会,会上有说旧石器时期语言的人和旧石器时期的物品;还有PrimalCon这样的度假地,提供五天的旧石器时期生活沉浸式体验;有关于旧石器时期的书籍、人偶模型、美容制品、酒类饮料、睡眠眼罩、“大脚怪”鞋子和衣;更有一大堆贩卖按旧石器时期方式制作的食物,包括杏花马卡龙、麋鹿肉干和无谷即食麦片棒。And, of course, Paleo has its celebrity followers. Actors like Megan Fox, Jessica Biel and Matthew McConaughey have reportedly taken the plunge.当然,旧石器生活方式也少不了名人拥趸。有报道说,梅根·福克斯(Megan Fox)、杰西卡·贝尔(Jessica Biel)和马修·麦康纳(Matthew McConaughey)都深深投入其中。“Ancestral health,” to use a term popular among Paleo followers, has gone mass. For them, Paleo is a way of life, a philosophical prism that colors everything from child rearing to sunscreen.“祖先的健康原则”是旧石器生活方式拥趸们当中流行的一句话,如今这种方式已经走向大众。对于他们来说,旧石器是一种生活方式,一种哲学光谱,从养育孩子到防晒霜——它可以涵盖生活的方方面面。“It’s like taking the red pill or the blue pill in ‘The Matrix’; once you take the red pill, there’s no going back,” said Karen Phelps, a freelance writer in Ashland, Ore., referring to her conversion to the diet a few years ago, when a successful weight-loss push ended up becoming a total-life commitment. “It’s a total rabbit hole,” she said. “You start thinking, ‘Wait a minute, if I can fix my diet from ancestral health principles, what else can I fix through ancestral health principles?’ The list is endless.”“这有点像在《黑客帝国》(The Matrix)中选择红药片还是蓝药片;一旦你选择了红药片,就再也没有回头路了,”俄勒冈州阿什兰德的自由撰稿人凯伦·菲尔普斯(Karen Phels)说,她在几年前开始尝试这种饮食法,不仅令她得以成功减肥,还变成了她的整个生活。“这就像兔子洞,”她说,“你开始思考,‘等一下,如果我可以按照祖先的健康原则去改善饮食,那么我还能按照祖先的健康原则去改善什么?’能改善的东西有很多。”Certainly, trendy diets and quasi-religious zeal have long gone hand in hand, a point familiar to anyone who has ever endured a newcomer to, say, Atkins spinning out soliloquies on cheese omelets. Even so, such dieters tend to limit their enthusiasm to what’s on the plate. Who ever heard of an Atkins bedroom or an Atkins medicine cabinet?当然,流行的饮食法早就和类宗教狂热密不可分,这么说吧,只要你见过阿特金斯低碳饮食法(Atkins)的新入门者对着奶酪煎蛋卷自言自语的情形就会明白的。尽管如此,这样的饮食法实践者倾向于把狂热局限在餐桌上。谁听说过阿特金斯低碳睡眠法或者阿特金斯低碳医疗箱呢?But among the Paleo crowd, limiting one’s enthusiasm for Paleo to food is almost a rookie maneuver.但是对于旧石器生活方式的拥趸们来说,把对旧石器时期的热情仅仅局限在食品方面,只是初级者的做法。“Most people come to the Paleo diet thinking, ‘Hey, I can lose some weight,’ ” said Cain Credicott, the editor and publisher of Paleo Magazine, which sells at the checkout counter at Barnes amp; Noble, next to Bon Appétit.“大多数刚刚接触旧石器饮食法的人都想,‘嘿,这能让我减肥’,”《旧石器杂志》(Paleo Magazine)的编辑和出版人凯恩·克莱迪克特(Cain Credicott)说,这本杂志可以在巴恩斯与诺贝尔书店的收银处买到,就放在《好胃口》(Bon Appétit)旁边。“Everybody recognizes now that if you eat a squeaky clean diet but are still going to bed at 1 a.m. after watching TV, waking up at 6 a.m. with an alarm clock and slathering yourself with sunscreen, it doesn’t matter how good your diet is, you’re not going to be healthy,” Mr. Credicott said.“现在所有人都意识到,就算你的饮食无可挑剔,但假如你仍然是看完电视凌晨一点上床,又在早晨6点被闹钟唤醒,全身涂满防晒霜,那么就算吃得再好也还是无法获得健康,”克莱迪克特说。The basic theory of the so-called cave-man diet (which, at this point, you would virtually have to live in a cave to be unaware of) is that the modern diet, with its reliance on grains, starches, dairy and processed sugar, is not what the human body evolved to thrive on, and has contributed to widesp “diseases of civilization” like diabetes and heart disease.所谓的“穴居人饮食法”(到了今天,假如你还不知道“穴居人饮食法”,那你没准真的住在洞穴里),它的基本理论是:现代人的饮食依赖谷类、淀粉、牛奶和加工糖类,它们并不是人类身体进化过程中所需要的食品,而且造成了广泛传播的“文明病”,比如糖尿病和心脏病等。That is why leaders of the movement like Loren Cordain and Robb Wolf advocate a “wild” diet that falls roughly in line with that of those Paleolithic forager ancestors who had not yet learned to cultivate and eat grain, much less pry the lid off a Pringles can.所以罗恩·科丹(Loren Cordain)和罗布·伍尔夫(Robb Wolf)等旧石器饮食运动的倡导者鼓吹“野性”的饮食,它主要依照我们旧石器时代的祖先而设计——他们需要四处觅食,还有没学会种植庄稼和食用谷物,更别说吃品客薯片了。Paleo is not without its critics. The science has been endlessly debated: Some nutritionists counter that verboten foods like grains, dairy and beans contain valuable nutrients, such as calcium, vitamins B and D, antioxidants and fiber. Elizabeth Kolbert, in a recent New Yorker road test of the diet, also pointed out that a meat-heavy diet has dire environmental implications. Still, proselytes often find that being Paleo quickly becomes a round-the-clock duty.旧石器饮食不乏批评者。科学界无休无止地讨论:有些营养学家反驳说,谷物、牛奶和豆类这些被旧石器饮食严格禁止的食品中包含有益的营养成分,诸如钙质、维生素B、维生素D,抗氧化物和纤维。伊丽莎白·科尔伯特(Elizabeth Kolbert)最近在《纽约客》杂志对这种饮食法进行的实际检测中也指出,偏重肉食的饮食法对环境有极坏的影响。但皈依者们通常会发现保持旧石器生活方式很快就成了他们全天候的职责。That was the experience of Michelle Tam, a former pharmacist in Palo Alto, Calif., who has adopted a primal sleep regimen.米歇尔·塔姆(Michelle Tam)的经历就是如此,她原本是加利福尼亚州帕罗阿尔托的药剂师,目前在尝试原始人睡眠养生法。It all started four years ago, when Ms. Tam, now 40, tried the Paleo diet to combat sluggishness and a stubborn muffin-top. But it didn’t end when she shed the extra pounds, as she sought to reorder the rest of her life along those ancestral principles. She quit her hospital job and transformed herself into something of a Martha Stewart of Paleo. Her recipe blog, Nom Nom Paleo, draws more than 100,000 page views daily. And she has a best-selling cookbook, a cooking app and action figure (though, oddly, it’s made of vinyl, not stone).塔姆女士现年40岁,她从四年前开始尝试旧石器饮食法来对抗自己的惰性,以及对玛芬甜点的顽固喜好。但一切并未随她减重几磅而结束,她希望按照祖先的方式来重新安排自己的余生。她辞去了医院的工作,把自己重塑为旧石器时代的玛莎·斯图尔特(Martha Stewart)。她的菜谱客“Nom Nom Paleo”每天有10万人次访问。她的烹饪书成了畅销书,她还有一个烹饪app,以及人偶模型(奇怪的是,它不是用石头,而是用树脂做成的)。Ms. Tam also found herself altering her sleep to become more Paleo. As Mark Sisson put it in his seminal 2009 book, “The Primal Blueprint,” “our ancestors’ activity and sleep patterns were shaped by sunrise and sunset.” In the primal mind, the modern sleep ritual, interrupted by iPads and Jimmy Fallon, seems as unhealthy as a dinner of Fiddle Faddle with a Mountain Dew chaser.为了更像旧石器时代的人,塔姆改变了睡眠方式。正如马克·希森(Mark Sisson)在2009年的畅销书《原始蓝图》(The Primal Blueprint)中所写,“‘我们的祖先’日出而作,日落而息”。现代人的睡眠不时被iPad和吉米·法伦(Jimmy Fallon)的深夜秀打断,在原始人心目中这就像是把甜食和软饮当晚饭一样不健康。That’s why Ms. Tam, a confessed television addict, decided to cut out all electronic devices after 8 p.m. If she has to check her iPhone, she wears amber goggles to block the blue-spectrum light that she believes interferes with her circadian rhythms. Next, she turned her bedroom into the equivalent of a Lascaux cave, removing all clocks (her two young sons serve as her morning alarm, she said) and installing blackout window inserts.所以承认自己迷恋电视的塔姆决定晚八点一过就关掉所有电子设备。如果不得不查看手机,她会带上琥珀镜片护目镜屏蔽蓝光,她认为这种蓝光会干扰她的生物钟。此外,她把卧室布置得和原始岩洞没两样,拿走了所有钟表(她说,由两个小儿子来充当她的闹钟),还装上了遮光窗板。The move paid dividends. “I used to envy how my young two boys would fall asleep almost immediately after their heads hit the pillow,” Ms. Tam said. “At dawn, they’d bound out of bed, eager to tell us about the previous night’s dreams. Now, I sleep like them.”她的做法有了回报。“我以前羡慕我的两个年幼的儿子头一沾枕头就能睡着,”塔姆说,“一到清晨,他们就从床上跳起来,等不及告诉我们前一天晚上做了什么梦。现在我也能和他们一样了。”She is not the only beneficiary. As Bloomberg Businessweek reported last fall, Indow Windows, the Portland, Ore.-based manufacturer of her window inserts, said traffic to its site tripled after Ms. Nam tweeted that she was “the happiest zombie on the planet” thanks to the company’s product.她并不是唯一的受益者。《彭商业周刊》(Bloomberg Businessweek)去年秋天的报道说,她使用的那种窗板是俄勒冈州波特兰的Indow Windows公司生产的。塔姆女士在Twitter上说:用了该公司的产品后,自己就成了“地球上最快乐的僵尸”。该公司声称,自那以后,公司网站的访问量增加了三倍。But the lifestyle does not end when you roll out of bed. For many, the quest to rid one’s daily regimen of “poisonous things,” to use Mr. Sisson’s phrase, includes the morning beauty routine. Vita Pedrazzi, a former fashion manager at Harrods in London who now lives in the Canary Islands, said she used to be the sort of beauty obsessive who would slap on makeup to take out the trash, in part because of her sheepishness over her acne. But when the primal path inspired her to rid her bathroom of any product containing creepy-sounding chemicals, she adopted a zero-tolerance policy to any store-bought beauty product or cleanser — even soap.但是从床上爬起来,穴居人的生活方式还没结束。用希森的话说,还要除掉日常生活中“有毒害的东西”,比如早晨的美容工序。维塔·派德拉奇(Vita Pedrazzi)曾是伦敦哈罗德百货分管时装的经理,如今住在开曼群岛,她说,她曾经是美容狂人,就算出去倒垃圾也要化妆,部分是由于对自己的粉刺感到害羞。但原始人的生活方式鼓励她把洗手间里所有含有令人毛骨悚然的化学成分的制品都扔掉,如今她对任何商店里贩卖的美容用品和清洁都采取零容忍态度——连肥皂也不例外。As she proudly related on her blog, Vita Lives Free, Ms. Pedrazzi, 30, now makes her own beauty products, including a “no-poo” shampoo method (baking soda and apple cider vinegar, with a few drops of jojoba oil for the tips as a leave-in conditioner), body scrub made from olive oil and brown sugar, and toothpaste made with coconut oil and baking soda, with activated charcoal tablets for whitening. Although houseguests are shocked to find not so much as a canister of Ajax in her house — her horrified father-in-law recently raced out to the drugstore to buy toilet cleaner, instead of her white vinegar solution — she feels transformed.她的客名叫“维塔自由生活”,她在上面骄傲地写道:30岁的派德拉奇女士,如今亲手制作自己的美容用品,包括“不使用香波”的洗头方式(用小苏打和苹果醋清洗,再在发梢涂上几滴荷荷巴油作为护发素)、用橄榄油和红糖做成的身体磨砂膏,还有用椰子油和苏打做成的牙膏,并用小块活性炭为牙齿增白。尽管客人们震惊地发现,她的家里连Ajax清洁用品也没有(她的公公看到她用白醋清洗厕所简直吓坏了,赶快跑到杂货店去买来清洁剂),但她看上去宛如脱胎换骨。“The new natural beauty routine totally transformed my skin, and I finally defeated my acne,” she said. “I was finally free.”“新的自然美容法彻底改变了我的皮肤,我也最终战胜了粉刺,”她说。“我终于自由了。”As the Paleo day continues, many find a way to keep at least a toe in the primal world at the office. A writer for Paleo Lifestyle Magazine recommends keeping a jar of virgin coconut oil in a desk drawer. (“If I end up getting an afternoon sugar craving, or just feel like I’m in need of a quick snack, I just take out my spoon and eat a glob.”)很多人还找到办法,在办公室里也能至少保持一点原始世界的样子。一位《旧石器生活方式杂志》(Paleo Lifestyle Magazine)的撰稿人建议,在办公桌抽屉里放一罐初榨椰子油——“如果我下午想吃甜食或者想吃快餐,就吃一匙椰子油。”That may be one reason so many are looking to blow off some primal steam at the gym after work.所以下班之后,许多人希望能在健身房里也来点原始精神。The preferred form of exercise for the Paleo tribe is CrossFit, a high-intensity workout that stresses Cybex-equipment-free motions like lunges and burpees, and the high-protein, low-carb diet of neo-cave men. As John Durant, a founder of Paleo NYC and Barefoot Runners NYC, put it in his 2013 book, “The Paleo Manifesto: Ancient Wisdom for Lifelong Health,” “other animals don’t ‘exercise’ so much as they either play or just do what is required to survive. Birds fly. Fish swim.”交叉健身法(CrossFit)是备受“原始人”们青睐的健身方式,这是一种高强度的健身,强调弓步和波比(burpees)等不需要器械的动作,还要辅以新穴居人们推崇的高蛋白、低卡路里饮食。约翰·杜兰特(John Drant)是“纽约旧石器与纽约大脚怪跑步者”的创始人,他在2013年出版了《旧石器宣言:终生健康的古老智慧》(The Paleo Manifesto: Ancient Wisdom for Lifelong Health)一书,书中说,“其他动物不必‘锻炼’,因为它们不是在玩耍,就是在做生存必须的事情。鸟儿飞翔,鱼儿游泳。”In that spirit, humans are just supposed to do what humans naturally do — or did, 10,000 years ago — to stay fit: Climb. Run around. Hoist things. And never for unnaturally long stretches.也就是说,为了保持健康,人类也应该做人类生来自然而然就要做的事——或者说,一万年前自然而然要做的事——攀爬、奔跑、搬东西。并且不做不自然的长时间锻炼。“Evolutionary fitness” die-hards can also partake in back-to-nature workout retreats like MoveNat started by a French exercise guru named Erwan Le Corre, where participants crawl up hillsides on all fours, play catch with rocks and balance on logs over creeks.“进化的健康”的铁杆拥趸们还参加回归自然的健身法,比如一位名叫埃尔文·勒·科赫(Erwan Le Corre)的法国导师创立的MoveNat健身,参加者们要手脚并用地爬山,用石头玩接球游戏,在小溪上架设圆木,练习平衡身体。For those who spend their day rearing children, the primal impulse has made major inroads into parenting, too. Websites like The Primal Parent extol corn-syrup-free trick-or-treating, baby slings for “attachment parenting” and placenta-eating for new mothers.还有那些白天要照顾孩子们的人,原始的冲动也闯进了养育儿童的领域。诸如“原始人父母”之类网站倡导不要给孩子吃玉米糖浆,实行“亲密育儿法”,把婴儿悬挂起来,还有让产妇吃胎盘等做法。Unstructured play, in particular, has become a cherished concept among Paleo-minded parents like Ms. Phelps, the Oregon devotee, who argued that “play is the method by which all mammals learn.”信奉旧石器方法的父母们尤其喜爱随意游戏的概念,比如俄勒冈的菲尔普斯女士,她认为“游戏是一切哺乳类动物学习的方式”。Primal parents are the polar opposite of the hyper-achievement-oriented “Tiger Mom” model. Instead of overscheduling her 5-year-old daughter with cello lessons and science fairs, Ms. Phelps prefers to spend hours with her after school playing in a muddy creek near their house. “She loves bugs,” Ms. Phelps said. “She loves dirt. I think she’s going to be an entomologist.”原始人做父母的方式和如今致力于让孩子取得成就的“虎妈”模式截然相反。菲尔普斯没有给五岁的女儿安排大堆提琴课和科学活动,而是在她放学后和她一起去附近泥泞的小溪玩耍。“她喜欢虫子,”菲尔普斯说,“她喜欢泥土,我觉得她可以当个昆虫学家。”Mud. Rocks. Olive oil showers. From the outside, it may be easy to conclude that the Paleo lifestyle is all about hair shirts and self-denial. But Paleos, too, know how to rage after the workday is done, even though liquor, logically speaking, should be off limits. (It’s not as if hunter-gatherers were slugging back highballs). Dr. Cordain’s 85/15 rule of compliance allows for wiggle room, after all.泥巴、岩石、橄榄油浴。从外表看来,你可能会觉得旧石器生活方式意味着满身长毛和自我克制。但信奉旧石器生活方式的人也知道下班后该怎样疯狂一下,尽管从逻辑上说,烈酒本应当是被禁止的(狩猎-采集者似乎不会痛饮烈性威士忌)。但科丹士的85/15原则(罗恩·科丹提出的一种规则,生活中遵循旧石器原则的饮食与不遵循旧石器原则的饮食应大致保持在85%对15%的比例——译注)提供了弹性空间。For those looking to raise a glass, anything grain-forward, like beer, is typically out. But Paleos tend to look the other way on vodka (particularly potato vodka, which is free from all associations with gluten) and 100 percent agave tequila (hey, it’s cactus).对于那些喜欢喝酒的人来说,啤酒等谷物酿造的酒类是绝对禁止的。但旧石器生活方式的信奉者们乐于对伏特加另眼相看(特别是土豆酿制的伏特加,它不含谷蛋白),以及100%龙舌兰酒(嘿,它可是用仙人掌做的)。Pinterest, in fact, is brimming with Paleo cocktail recipes, like the Paleo Strawberry Daiquiri, courtesy of Paleo Girl’s Kitchen. It is made with organic strawberries, ice, fresh-squeezed orange juice, rum and honey. It sounds pretty much like a regular daiquiri.Pinterest网站上有大量旧石器鸡尾酒调制单,比如旧石器草莓代基里酒,由“旧石器女孩厨房”提供。它由有机草莓、冰块、鲜榨橙汁、朗姆酒和蜂蜜制成。听上去和普通代基里酒差不多。In movements that require at least a dash of faith, however, sometimes it’s the spirit that counts.不过,在这种多少需要一点信念的运动中,有时候精神才是最重要的。 /201409/332235In the beginning, there were Levi#39;s. In 1853, during the heart of the gold rush, a Bavarian émigré named Levi Strauss arrived in San Francisco from New York, looking to expand his family#39;s East Coast dry-goods business. Among his wares were blankets, cloth by the yard and durable work pants, sometimes called ;jeans pants.; Then in 1872, one of Strauss#39;s customers, a tailor named Jacob Davis, made him the offer that would change his fortunes — and the way Americans dressed — forever. Davis had been buying Strauss#39;s blue denim and duck cloth to sew ;waist-overalls; and had perfected a method of reinforcing them with the same copper rivets he used on horse blankets. Unwilling to put up the necessary to patent his creation, he suggested that Strauss pay the fee in exchange for a half-interest in the business.起初,有Levi#39;s牛仔裤。1853年,在淘金热的高潮,一个名叫利维·斯特劳斯(Levi Strauss)的巴伐利亚移民从纽约来到旧金山,想扩大他家族的东海岸公司(East Coast)的纺织品生意。他的产品包括毯子、大量布料和耐磨的工作裤——这种裤子有时被称为“牛仔裤#39;”。1872年,斯特劳斯的一位顾客、一个名叫雅可布·戴维斯(Jacob Davis)的裁缝提出一个建议,这个建议将彻底改变利维的命运以及美国人的着装方式。之前戴维斯经常购买斯特劳斯的蓝色粗斜纹布和帆布,缝制“齐腰工装裤”,而且用他做马鞍褥的铜铆钉改进了加固方法。他不愿花68美元给自己的创造申请专利,所以提议让斯特劳斯来付这个费用,回报是这个生意一半的利润。The patent for ;improvement in fastening pocket-openings; was granted in 1873, and soon after Levi Strauss amp; Company opened its first San Francisco factory to manufacture bluejeans. The original design, which was simply called ;XX,; was eventually assigned lot number 501. Competition was fierce: In addition to an upstate New York company called Sweet-Orr, founded in 1871 (which may actually have been the first commercial jeans producer), there were countless regional jeans companies by the turn of the century, including Osh Kosh B#39;Gosh in Wisconsin and Carhartt in Michigan. In 1911, the H.D. Lee Mercantile Company of Kansas started producing its own brand of workwear, which eventually led to Lee Dungarees. Along with Wrangler (originally founded in 1904 as the Hudson Overall Company of Greensboro, N.C.) and Levi#39;s, Lee went on after World War II to become what James Sullivan, author of ;Jeans: A Cultural History of an American Icon,; calls ;the big three; of bluejeans.“改进加固口袋的方法”的专利在1873年获得批准,不久之后,利维·斯特劳斯公司(Levi Strauss amp; Company)在旧金山开设了第一家工厂,生产蓝色牛仔裤。最初的设计被简单命名为“XX”,最终指定的批号为501。竞争非常激烈:1871年纽约州北部成立了一个名叫甜蜜奥尔(Sweet-Orr)的公司,它实际上可能是第一个牛仔裤生产商;到20世纪初,出现了数不清的地区牛仔裤公司,包括威斯康星州的奥什·科什·比哥什公司(Osh Kosh B#39;Gosh)和密歇根州的卡哈特公司(Carhartt)。1911年,堪萨斯州的H·D·李商业公司(H.D. Lee Mercantile Company)开始生产它自己的工作品牌,最终演变为李牌工装裤(Lee Dungarees)。Levi#39;s公司、Lee公司和牛仔公司(Wrangler,它成立于1904年,最初名为北卡罗来纳州格林斯罗市哈德逊工装裤公司[Hudson Overall Company of Greensboro, N.C.])这三家公司一直存续到“二战”后,成为詹姆斯·沙利文(James Sullivan)所说的牛仔裤“三巨头”。沙利文是《牛仔裤:一个美国标志的文化史》(Jeans: A Cultural History of an American Icon)的作者。Regardless of brand, jeans have reflected the mood of the country since the moment they were introduced. ;You went from cuffed jeans in the ‘50s to faded and bell-bottoms in the ‘60s and early ‘70s, to the designer jeans of the disco era, the saggy jeans of the hip-hop era and on to the exclusive 0 jeans we now call premium,; Sullivan says. And like all truly revolutionary products, jeans have inspired adoration, outrage and everything in between. As Yves Saint Laurent said more than once, ;I wish I had invented bluejeans.;撇开品牌不说,牛仔裤从诞生起就反映了这个国家的情绪。“从50年代的翻边牛仔裤,60年代、70年代初的褪色喇叭牛仔裤,到迪斯科舞时代的设计师牛仔裤,嘻哈时代松垮垮的牛仔裤,再到如今300美元的高端牛仔裤,”沙利文说。像所有真正具有革命性的产品,牛仔裤激发了爱慕、愤怒以及各种情绪。伊夫·圣·洛朗(Yves Saint Laurent)曾不止一次说过,“真希望牛仔裤是我发明的。” /201409/326817

And now, Science of Us attempts to unravel the answers to a summertime question of monumental importance: Why does nearly everyone instantly look more attractive with sunglasses on?据《纽约杂志》网站6月23日报道,现在,《我们的科学》栏目将解开一个长期以来十分重要的夏日之谜:为什么几乎所有人戴上墨镜之后都会立刻显得更吸引人?You know you’re at least a little curious. And so was Vanessa Brown, a senior lecturer of art and design at Nottingham Trent University in the U.K. Her research focuses on the meaning we assign to commonplace, everyday objects, and in an academic book that’s coming out early next year, she explores the cultural and psychological relationship between sunglasses and our modern idea of “cool.” In an email to Science of Us, Brown explained what her research has uncovered about why most of us look better in shades.你知道你对这个问题还是有点儿好奇,英国诺丁汉伦特大学艺术与设计专业高级讲师瓦内萨·布朗也对这个问题感到好奇。她进行了一项研究,重点关注我们赋予寻常事物的意义。在她明年年初即将出版的一本学术著作里,她从文化和心理学的角度分析了墨镜和当代社会所定义的“酷”之间的关系。布朗向《我们的科学》栏目发了一封电子邮件,向我们解释了她的研究成果,即为什么我们戴上墨镜更好看。Because they really do make your misshapen face look better. Put on a pair of sunglasses, and voilà – instant symmetry! The dark lenses cover up any asymmetrical oddities around your eyes, and research on facial attractiveness shows a clear link between symmetry and our perception of beauty.因为墨镜确实让你那不规则的脸变得更好看。戴上一副墨镜之后再看看你的脸——马上变对称了有木有!黑色的镜片将你眼睛周围不对称的部位都掩盖了,而有关面部吸引力的研究表明,对称性与我们对美的看法有着千丝万缕的联系。As an added bonus, Brown pointed out, sunglasses provide a kind of scaffolding effect, imposing the appearance of an external, extra-chiseled bone structure on top of your relatively softer-featured face.另外,布朗还指出,墨镜就像脚手架一样,可以让你相对平坦的面部骨骼显得更立体有型。Because mystery. Many of the snap judgments we form about people come from looking them in the eyes; shade yours, and you’re instantly a more intriguing presence. “The eyes are such a tremendous source of information — and vulnerability — for the human being,” Brown explained. Eye contact helps us form judgments about someone’s intelligence, confidence, andsincerity, and sunglasses keep us literally in the dark about forming those perceptions about a person. And it works both ways, because the wearer of the sunglasses feels more inscrutable, too. One recent study showed that people who wore sunglasses acted more selfishly and dishonestly than those wearing eyeglasses, which, the researchers argue, suggests that shades delude us into feeling more anonymous, or unknown.原因就在于神秘感。我们对于人的第一印象大都来自于他们的眼睛,如果你把眼睛遮住,你的外貌就会立刻变得更吸引人。“眼睛对于人类来说是相当重要的信息来源,也是识别弱点的工具。”布朗解释说,眼神交流有助于我们判断一个人的智力、自信和诚意,而墨镜让我们无法对别人进行判断。反过来也是一样,因为戴墨镜的人也会觉得自己更令人难以捉摸。最近的一项研究显示,戴墨镜的人比戴普通眼镜的人的行为更自私和不诚实,尽管研究人员对此还有争议,但也说明墨镜会让我们产生自己处于匿名状态或神不知鬼不觉的感觉。It#39;s colloquial wisdom that an air of mystery increases sexual desire, and research bears that notion out. Think of the common “the thrill is gone” complaint that accompanies the long-term relationship, for one. And one recent study showed that women who were uncertain of a man#39;s feelings toward them ended up reporting more attraction to those men. It#39;s essentially the plot of many a rom-com: We#39;re drawn to the people we can#39;t quite figure out.俗话说得好,越神秘,越诱惑。研究结果实了这一观点。例如,想一想人们总是抱怨一段长期感情中“不再”。最近的一项研究表明,女人越是对男人采取暧昧不清的态度,那么这个男人就对她越着迷。这本质上就是浪漫喜剧片的桥段:我们总是对自己猜不透的人着迷。Because of their historical link with edginess and glamour. We take their ubiquity for granted today, but sunglasses are a relatively modern everyday accessory, Brown said. Sales started to pick up in the 1920s, but they didn’t become commonplace until about two decades after that. The way sunglasses were most often used prior to their commercialization helps explain some of their inherent coolness, Brown said, because in their early days sunglasses were primarily used during risky water and snow sports, and were also associated with new technologies like airplane travel, which made them seem “daring and thoroughly modern.”布朗说,由于墨镜一直以来都是“犀利”和“迷人”的代名词,所以我们现在总是觉得它的普及是理所应当的,但墨镜直到相对现代的时期才成为日常饰品。墨镜的销量在上世纪二十年代开始增加,但直到40年代才飞入寻常百姓家。布朗说,在过去人们更注重墨镜的用途,而不是大肆宣传其与生俱来的冷酷气质,因为早期的墨镜主要用于水上和雪上冒险运动,并且往往和飞行旅行这类新技术联系在一起,这能彰显墨镜“无畏和现代化”的气质。Soon after that, Hollywood stars of the 1950s and 1960s started wearing sunglasses to defend themselves from being recognized by the public or harassed by paparazzi, whose flashbulbs would often explode violently, sometimes literally in their faces, Brown said. But regardless of practicality, movie stars’ adoption of the accessory cemented the link between sunglasses and glamour.布朗说,在那之后不久,五六十年代的好莱坞明星们开始佩戴墨镜以防止在公共场所被人认出来,或是防备仔队记者的骚扰,这些仔队记者疯狂拍照,有时甚至把闪光灯都凑到明星脸上了。但抛开墨镜的实用性不谈,明星们戴墨镜确实加强了墨镜与“魅力”之间的联系。Also – and this is more from my own personal research than Brown’s — hang-overs. They’re really great for hiding hang-overs.另外,我个人认为,宿醉也是墨镜受欢迎的原因之一,因为墨镜是掩盖宿醉后囧相的绝佳装备。 /201407/309517

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