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来源:首都学术    发布时间:2017年12月14日 08:23:24    编辑:admin         

If you were to track the upgrades for your Apple iPhone or Toyota Prius from their introduction to today, you will see a familiar arc in the technology industry: performance multiplies, the product is refined, jobs are created, even entire industries are reworked.如果回顾一下苹果公司(Apple)的iPhone或丰田(Toyota)普锐斯(Prius)混合动力车从最初型号到现有版本的发展过程,人们会发现技术行业一个常见的轨迹:性能翻倍提升,产品更精致,创造了无数就业岗位,甚至颠覆了整个行业。Consider, for example, that the iPhone’s theoretical maximum download speed on cellular networks went from 1 megabyte per second for the 2007 “2G” iPhone to 300 mbps for today’s 5s model. Its display more than doubled in pixel density, its camera transformed from cheap afterthought to serious photography tool, and its software capabilities are far more robust than when the device was introduced. (Even the App Store is a second-generation feature.)例如,iPhone在蜂窝网络中最大的理论下载速度已从2007年“2G”iPhone的1兆字节/秒上升至如今5s型号的300兆字节/秒。其显示屏的像素密度增加了一倍多,摄像头已从廉价的配件转变为一种实用的照相工具,而且其软件能力要比iPhone诞生之时强大太多太多。(即便是苹果应用商店如今也已发展到第二代了。)Similarly, Toyota’s Prius hybrid car evolved from a neighborhood oddity (and celebrity eco-accessory) in 2000 to a best-selling vehicle in Japan and California. The engine in today’s model is 20 percent lighter (and offers 20 percent more total horsepower) than the original. Its distance-per-charge is longer. Without the Prius, it can be argued, there would be no Tesla.同样,丰田的普锐斯混合动力车从2000年的邻家怪胎(以及明星彰显其环保态度的配饰)摇身一变为日本和加州最畅销的交通工具。当前车型引擎的重量较最初型号轻了20%(总功率增加了20%),而且单次充电后行驶的里程更长。有人会说,没有普锐斯,就不会有如今的特斯拉电动车(Tesla)。There’s is one component of all of these things that hasn’t changed in that time period: the lithium-ion battery. Whether in the iPhone, the Prius, and even the Tesla Model S, the Li-ion battery is essentially made of the same stuff as those first introduced by Sony in 1991. That’s not to say that innovation hasn’t happened around them, of course. Device-makers have become better at charging them, cooling them, and controlling how much power they draw into our phones, cars, laptops, and USB gadgets. But they’re still largely the same battery. Even Tesla’s billion plans for a “giga”-sized battery factory involve the manufacture of—you guessed it—lithium-ion packs.然而在这些设备中,有一个组件这些年来一直没有变化,那就是锂离子电池。不管是在iPhone,还是普锐斯,甚至是特斯拉S车型,锂电池用的还是1991年索尼公司(Sony)推出这一产品时所用的材料。当然,这并不是说人们没有针对这种电池进行过创新。设备制造商在充电效率、冷却和控制进入手机、汽车、笔记本和USB元件的电流流量方面做得越来越好,但这些电池的芯却没有怎么换过。即便是特斯拉计划建造的50亿美元超大型电池生产厂生产的仍是(如你所料)锂电池组。Upon further investigation, there is little consensus on what kind of battery technology may replace lithium ion. There aren’t even rumors.进一步的调查发现,人们对于哪一种电池技术可能能够取代锂电池仍是众说纷纭,甚至连这方面的谣言都是寥寥无几。To find out why, Fortune posed a simple question to five established researchers working on next-generation batteries, a behavioral economist, and a battery industry executive: Why is battery technology moving so much slower than hardware?为探究其原因,《财富》(Fortune)向致力于开发下一代电池的5名知名研究人员、一名行为经济学家和一名电池行业高管提出了一个简单的问题:为什么电池技术的发展速度要比硬件慢如此之多?As you’ll soon find out, the answer is one part chemistry, one part psychology, and two parts the answer to a counter-question: Who really wants to be the first to drive with a new type of battery that hasn’t benefited from two decades of development?接下来你便会发现,的一成与化学有关,一成与心理学有关,而两成则与上述问题的反问有关:对于一项未经过二十年发展的新电池技术,一旦装上汽车,谁想成为首位驾驶该车的人?Today’s battery tech: dense, hot, tricky当今的电池技术:密度大、发热量大、问题多Lithium-ion battery technology is in many ways the workhorse of portable power.锂离子电池技术在很多方面都是移动电源的主力军。Lithium’s atomic number is three, which, if you remember middle-school chemistry, means that it has three protons, is very lightweight, and can be packed more densely than any element other than hydrogen or helium. Lithium is a known quantity to chemists, says Carlo Segre, professor of physics at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, and we mostly understand how it flows inside a battery.锂的原子量是3,如果你还记得中学化学的话,这意味着它有三个质子,非常轻,是除了氢和氦之外单位体积可填充密度最高的元素。芝加哥伊利诺伊州理工大学(Illinois Institute of Technology)物理学教授卡洛o塞格雷表示,锂的物理量为化学家们所熟知,我们几乎掌握了锂离子在电池中流动的方式。“I think it really boils down to, the reason lithium is so good, is that it’s very light, and you can get it through a membrane very easily,” Segre says. “And the potential difference (voltage) you can generate is one of the highest we know.”塞格雷说,“我认为归根结底,锂如此好的原因在于,它非常轻,而且能够轻易地穿透隔离膜。而且其产生的电压是已知材料中最高的之一。”It’s not just lithium that goes into a Li-ion battery. The element gets mixed with magnesium (for personal gadgets and vehicles), iron phosphate (for heavy-duty work), and other metals. That mixture flows into another material to create voltage: graphite, titanium solutions, silicon, and different forms of carbon, depending. In most non-industrial devices used in relatively safe conditions, you have lithium manganese oxide flowing into graphite, because those materials are cheap, relatively safe, and dense.锂并不是锂电池里的唯一材料,其中还混有锰(个人电子产品和交通工具)、磷酸铁(高强度工作)和其他金属。为了产生电压,这种混合物会流经另一种材料:石墨、钛溶液、硅和不同形式的碳(依情况而定)。对于大多数在相对安全的环境中所使用的非工业设备来说,流经石墨的是锂锰氧化物,因为这种材料价格低廉,相对安全,而且密度高。But there are quite a few problems with the old faithful. The process generates heat in a dense space, requiring some kind of cooling system. (A tremendous amount of work went into Tesla’s car-length liquid cooling rig, for example.) The electrolyte that conducts lithium’s flow adds weight. The cells lose their capacity over time. Charging the battery, which makes the lithium flow back, could be quicker. And though it’s rare, we have seen that tightly packed batteries full of fluids, made very hot, can sometimes puncture or explode.但是这一老产品也存在一些问题。这一进程会在一个高密度空间内产生热量,需要采取一些冷却措施。(例如,与特斯拉车身长度相当的液态冷却设备担负了大量的冷却工作。)传导锂离子的电解液增加了电池的重量。电芯的容量在一段时间后就会下降。充电会让锂离子回流,但这一进程可以更快一些。充满电解质的高密度锂电池在发热量超过一定程度之后有时会爆浆或爆炸,虽然这一情况很少见。What we might use next: air今后我们可能会使用空气Chandrasekhar “Spike” Narayan, director of science and technology at IBM Research, is part of the Battery 500 Project. The goal is to get batteries to power a car of average cost on a 500-mile trip. IBM won’t build the batteries itself, but will partner with manufacturing and consumer companies to get them into the wild.IBM研究院(IBM Research)科技部主任钱德拉塞卡尔o纳拉延是电池500项目(Battery 500 Project)的成员。该项目的目标是,开发能够提供行驶500英里路程所需电量的电池。IBM公司自身并不会生产电池,而是与消费类产品制造商开展合作,将这一技术带到现实中。After years of work, Narayan sees a future for lithium-air technology, which replaces graphite and other metals with oxygen, refreshed by the car itself. Such batteries could be lighter, safer, and last far longer. But working with new mixtures, pushing them into new materials, and seeing how safe they are over thousands of charge cycles takes a very, very long time.经过多年的努力之后,纳拉延看到了锂-空气技术的前景,即用汽车自身补给的氧气取代石墨和其他的金属。这类电池可以变得更轻,更安全,而且供电时间也更长。但是研发新的混合物,将它们制成新材料,并检测其在数千辆汽车上的安全性,需要花费非常漫长的时间。“There is no guiding principle that suggests you get improvement from year to year,” Narayan says. “There is no magic knob you can turn. The only way we can get to that kind of paradigm is a completely new kind of chemistry, and innovation doesn’t work like that.”纳拉延说:“目前没有一个指导性原则显示,我们能够年复一年地获得进步,也没有捷径可以走。要得到这种范式,唯有创建一种全新的化学反应,而这一点并非创新所能企及的。”Currently, lithium-air batteries have to overcome problems with blockages, internal rust, and stability. Even if air batteries are smoothed into a viable product, Narayan sees a future where battery technology is no longer one-size-fits all. “It may not be a great technology for power grid storage, for example. Especially when there is a size requirement, we may see differentiation among battery types soon.”当前,锂-空气电池必须克堵塞、内部腐蚀和稳定性问题。即便空气电池能够顺利地演变为一种可行产品,纳拉延认为,在今后,电池技术将不再是“通用型”。“例如,对于电网存储来说,它或许不是什么好技术。尤其是有尺寸要求的行业,我们或许很快将看到多种多样的电池类型。”What we can do in the meantime: get cheaper当前我们能做些什么:降低价格Kevin Bai and Xuan “Joe” Zhou at Kettering University work in labs and in battery industry research, but they talk like car shoppers than laboratory wonks. With the hybrid vehicles of today, Zhou notes, there are lots of trade-offs, in several ways.凯特林大学(Kettering University)的凯文o白和周轩(音译)在实验室中从事电池行业研究,但他们的谈吐更像是买车人而不是实验室的书呆子。周轩表示,现今的混合动力车存在多方面的优缺点。“Right now [hybrid] batteries are selling for 0 to 0 per kilowatt hour, but they should be 0,” Zhou says. “And every dollar you spend in the battery is another dollar in cooling. If the car needs a ,000 battery, it’s a ,000 cooling system.” What’s more, Bai notes, the size of such a battery eats up trunk or seating space. The scientists agree that an electric vehicle should feel like less of a financial albatross.周轩说:“目前,混合动力的售价是每千瓦时500-600美元,但合理的价格应该是200美元。而且冷却系统的价格跟电池的价格是差不多的。如果汽车需要6,000美元的电池,那么就需要6,000美元的冷却系统。”此外,凯文o白指出,这类电池的体积蚕食了本应属于后备箱或乘坐的空间。两位科学家也认为,电动汽车不应给人们带来沉重的财务负担。But it’s anybody’s guess as to which current materials may work out to have the safest, coolest, and most lightweight mix, while still selling for less than today’s offerings.但是谁也不知道,哪些现有材料才能构造出最安全、发热量最低和重量最轻的电池混合材料,而且其价格要比现有的产品便宜。Zinc-air batteries, used in hearing aids today, are seeing renewed interest, especially given zinc’s easy availability. The same goes for sodium-air, which are cheaper and easier to assemble, if not as potentially powerful as lithium-air. There are also attempts to replace the graphite and carbon solids in batteries with silicon, though silicon isn’t cheap. Or we might just improve the cost and performance of the lithium-iron batteries in our drills and motorcycles in the meantime.现今在助听领域使用的锌-空气电池重新激起了人们的兴趣,而且尤为重要的一点在于,锌很容易获取。钠-空气电池也是一样,成本更低,而且组装起来更容易,只是潜在功率赶不上锂-空气电池。人们还尝试过用硅来取代石墨和固体碳,但是硅并不便宜。或者,我们可以只专注于改善实验室和托车使用的锂-铁电池的成本和性能。In many ways, Bai says, building larger battery plants, better battery management tools, and a smarter power grid for charging is going to bear greater fruit than waiting on one or another chemical combo to pay off.凯文o白表示,建造更大规模的电池厂、开发更好的电池管理工具以及更加智能的充电电网在很多方面要比等待一两项新化合物获得成功更为实在。“We are actually very far away from a brand-new battery for vehicles,” Bai says. “The automotive industry, they must feel they can stand behind 10 years of testing before they are comfortable trying a new material.” It will be at least 2020, he says, before you see zinc-air batteries in the first four-wheeled vehicles–and then a long while more before that battery technology matures.凯文o白说:“我们实际上离使用全新电池的交通工具还很远很远。只有在新材料经过10年的测试之后,汽车行业才能放心使用新材料。”他表示,人们至少要等到2020年才能看见使用锌-空气电池的四轮车辆,然后,人们需要更长的时间才能看到这一电池技术的成熟。What we can do in the future: nano-engineer materials未来我们能做什么:纳米工程材料Don’t give up on lithium-ion just yet, says Partha Mukherjee, a professor at Texas Aamp;M University and leader in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers’ Nanoengineering for Energy and Sustainability group. We might still be using it, but with materials that have gained some new powers in the lab.德克萨斯农工大学(Aamp;M University)教授、美国机械工程师协会(American Society of Mechanical Engineers)能源和可持续性纳米工程小组成员帕沙o穆克荷吉表示,现在还没到放弃锂离子电池的时候。我们可能仍会用它,但它将与我们在实验室中获得新能力的材料混合使用。Nanoengineers might dig into the molecular structure of battery materials to speed up how they transfer more voltage per cell. There might be a change in the way the electrolyte conveys lithium ions so that “traffic jams” don’t occur and charging is much faster. You could design a thinner, stronger, but still flexible membrane for batteries that allows for swelling under heat but never breaks. Or go for broke and develop a material that absorbs more lithium ions than carbon, air, or any material we know.纳米工程师可能会对电池材料的分子结构进行深入研究,以加速电池单元电压的产生速度,并提升其转换效率。电解质携带锂离子的方式可能会发生改变,以杜绝“交通拥堵现象”,并缩短充电时间。人们可能会设计出更薄、更强大但伸缩依然自如的电池膜,这样,即便电池受热膨胀,也不会爆浆。或者一心一意开发能够比碳、空气或任何已知材料吸附更多锂离子的材料。“The fundamental question we need to ask is, ‘How about starting from the bottom up?” Mukherjee says. “That is the mesoscale paradigm that must be addressed. Can we make materials that are more tolerant of what we need batteries to do?”穆克荷吉说:“我们需要询问的最根本的问题在于,‘是否可以从头再来?’。这就是必须解决的中尺度模型。我们是否能增加材料的宽容度,以满足我们对于电池的诉求?”In the meantime: get perspective与此同时:着眼于长远A year ago Segre, of the Illinois Institute of Technology, received a .4 million prize from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a “flow battery” for car applications. Flow batteries store their active chemicals in external tanks and pass it through the battery structure itself. Segre’s work focuses on developing a liquid that is reactive and powerful enough to compensate for the liquid weight trade-off.一年前,伊利诺伊理工大学的塞格雷从美国能源部获得了340万美元的奖金,用于开发汽车用“流体电池”。流体电池将其活性化合物储存在外部储罐中,然后流经电池结构内部。塞格雷的工作专注于开发具有足够活性和能量的液体介质,以抵消液体的重量劣势。A flow battery might work in cars and power grid applications, but it will never work for a phone or laptop. Segre, like most researchers, knows it will be a long series of experiments until researchers hit upon a few different material combinations for batteries. In the meantime, “It’s especially frustrating for most of us because the battery dies, the capacity drops, after a couple years, while the electronics it powers could go on and on.”流体电池或许可以应用于汽车和电网,但却无法适用于手机或笔记本。与其他的研究人员一样,塞格雷深知,这将是一个漫长的实验过程,除非研究人员能够在偶然间发现几种能用于电池的不同材料组合。与此同时,“对于大多数人来说,这是一件尤为痛苦的事情,因为几年过后,电量没了,容量也下降了,然而电池供电的电子产品却在不断前进。”For decades, we lived within Moore’s Law, which predicted that the number of transistors packed into a processor would double every two years, providing a steady gallop of technology improvement. We are now approaching a point at which transistors are near atomic-scale, chips can’t fit many more processors, and we’re unhappy with having the same kinds of batteries in our devices.过去几十年中,我们一直生活在尔定律(Moore#39;s Law)当中。根据该定律,处理器中的晶体管数量每两年会翻一番,而这也说明了技术进步的稳定性。我们目前所面临的局势是,晶体管尺寸已接近原子水平,芯片无法容纳更多的处理器,而且我们对设备中一成不变的电池感到不满。In other words, when it comes to physics, there’s no app for that. Which can be a bitter pill for tech-savvy consumers to swallow as they become acclimated to regular advancements in every other part of their electronic devices, says Michal Ann Strahilevitz, a professor of marketing at Golden Gate University.换句话来说,物理中是没有应用程序的。金门大学(Golden Gate University)市场营销教授米盖尔o安o斯特拉赫维茨表示,这对于深谙技术的消费者来说可能有点难以接受,因为他们已经习惯了电子设备每一部件都会定期改良。“Adapting to upgrades is easy, and the more you are upgraded, the more you expect further upgrades,” Strahilevitz says. “In a world where [gadgets] keep getting better and more efficient, we feel we have a right to that. We ask, ‘Why can’t they be more wonderful than this?#39;”斯特拉赫维茨说:“适应升级很容易,得到的升级越多,对进一步升级的期望也就越大。在这个电子产品越来越好,性能越来越高的世界中,我们觉得这是我们应享有的权利。我们会问,‘为什么电池不能变得更好呢?’” /201408/323621。

Nearly two years to the day that Marissa Mayer took the helm at Yahoo, the company’s turnaround is still a work in progress. And its fortunes are still very much tied to its stake in Alibaba, the private Chinese Internet company expected to go public next month.玛丽莎·梅耶尔(Marissa Mayer)掌舵雅虎两周年将至,公司局面仍未彻底扭转。雅虎的命运还与它在中国互联网私营企业阿里巴巴所持有的股份密切相关。后者预计将于下月上市。It’s easy for Wall Street to overlook Yahoo’s lackluster performance, when it is so busy salivating over the company’s holdings in Alibaba. On Tuesday, when Yahoo announced its second-quarter earnings, it said it had reached an agreement with Alibaba to reduce the number of shares it is required to sell in the initial public offering, to 140 million shares from 208 million shares. Conservative estimates predict Alibaba will be valued at 0 billion when it goes public, more than five times Yahoo’s current billion market valuation.华尔街很容易忽略雅虎黯淡无光的业绩,因为他们此时正垂涎于雅虎持有的阿里巴巴股份。周二,雅虎在宣布第二季度收益时表示,已与阿里巴巴达成协议,在阿里巴巴上市时,它必须出售的阿里巴巴股份将从2.08亿股减少到1.4亿股。据保守估计,阿里巴巴上市时的估值将达到1500亿美元,这是雅虎目前市值350亿美元的四倍还多。More good news for shareholders came from the earnings report: Kenneth A. Goldman, Yahoo’s chief financial officer, told investors that Yahoo planned to return at least half of its after-tax profits from the Alibaba offering to shareholders. If Yahoo can find a tax-efficient way to distribute those fortunes, Wall Street has reason for optimism.收益报告还给股东们带来了更多好消息:雅虎的首席财务官肯尼斯·A·古德曼(Kenneth A. Goldman)告诉投资者,雅虎计划把从阿里巴巴上市中获得的税后收益的至少一半返还给股东。如果雅虎能找到一种合理避税的方法来分配这些财富,华尔街有理由感到乐观。Still, even the hoopla over the Alibaba news was not enough to distract from the other problems at Yahoo, where Ms. Mayer’s best efforts to drive more content and acquire fresh talent and innovative products through acquisitions have done little to bolster the company’s financial performance.不过,即使是与阿里巴巴有关的消息所引起的兴奋,也不足以让人们忽视雅虎的其他问题。梅耶尔通过多笔收购来增加内容、获得新鲜人才和创新产品的重磅行动,基本上未能提振公司的财务业绩。“Things aren’t getting better,” Colin Gillis, an analyst at BGC Partners, put it bluntly. “The core business is still dismal.”“情况没有在改善,”BGC Partners的分析师科林·吉利斯(Colin Gillis)直言不讳地说,“核心业务仍然令人沮丧。”On Tuesday, Ms. Mayer announced the worst revenue number since she took over. Yahoo’s revenue fell 4 percent last quarter, to .08 billion from the year-ago quarter.周二,梅耶尔宣布了她执掌雅虎以来最糟糕的营收数据。雅虎的上季度营收同比下降了4%,为10.8亿美元。Ms. Mayer was the first to admit disappointment. “Our top priority is revenue growth, and by that measure, we are not satisfied with our Q2 results,” she said. “While several areas showed strength, their growth was offset by declines.”梅耶尔率先承认这些数据令人失望。“营收增长是我们的最首要任务,但以这个标准来看,二季度的业绩无法令人满意,”她说,“尽管有几个领域显示出了优势,但它们的增长被一些下滑所抵消。”Yahoo’s revenue from its display advertising business fell 8 percent last quarter, to 6 million, compared with the same quarter a year ago, in large part because Google and Facebook continue to capture ever larger shares of the ed States display ad market.雅虎的展示广告业务的营收上季度同比下降了8%,为4.36亿美元,这很大程度是因为谷歌和Facebook在美国展示广告市场的份额仍在不断扩大。Yahoo, once the top seller of display ads in the ed States, is projected to drop to 6 percent market share, from 7.1 percent market share last year, even though the overall display ad market is expected to grow by 23.8 percent this year, according to eMarketer.雅虎曾是美国最大的展示广告销售商。根据eMarketer的数据,尽管整个展示广告市场预计今年将增长23.8%,预计雅虎的市场份额将从去年的7.1%降至6%。On Tuesday, Yahoo said its income from operations slid 72 percent, to million, from the year-ago quarter, much of that because of a restructuring charge. Net earnings for the second quarter were down 19 percent, to 0 million, or 26 cents a share, from 1 million or 30 cents a share.雅虎周二表示,二季度的运营收入同比下滑了72%,为3800万美元,这主要是因为重组的费用。二季度的净利润同比下降了19%,为2.7亿美元,即每股26美分,去年同期分别为3.31亿美元和每股30美分。That net income was below the expectations of Wall Street analysts, who forecast an average of 33 cents a share. But the biggest black hole continues to be Yahoo’s revenue from mobile advertising, considered the hottest growth area for Internet companies. Yahoo did not report its mobile ad revenue on Tuesday, even though the market for mobile advertising is expected to reach .73 billion this year, an 83 percent jump from last year, according to eMarketer.这个净收入低于华尔街分析师的预期,后者预测的平均值为每股33美分。但最大的黑洞仍然是雅虎移动广告的营收,它被认为是互联网公司最炙手可热的增长领域。雅虎周二没有披露其移动广告收入,根据eMarketer,预计今年移动广告市场规模将达到177.3亿美元,较去年飙升83%。Even with the fortunes from Alibaba’s looming I.P.O., shares of Yahoo fell 2 percent in after-hours trading, after ending regular trading down 9 cents, or 0.25 percent, to .61.即使拥有阿里巴巴的上市即将带来的财富,雅虎股票盘后交易时段仍然下跌了2%,此前,它在常规交易时段收盘时下跌9美分,即0.25%,至35.61美元。 /201407/312548。

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella says the cloud is vital to his company’s future.微软公司(Microsoft)首席执行官萨蒂亚o纳德拉表示,云对微软的未来至关重要。“We want to empower every individual and every organization to thrive,” Nadella said at an event in San Francisco on Monday.周一他在旧金山一个活动现场表示:“我们希望让每个人和每个机构都能发展壮大。”It’s a message that he hopes potential business clients will take to heart as he tries to lift Microsoft’s fortunes after a year of upheaval during which he replaced longtime leader Steve Ballmer. His company is under attack like never been before from rivals like Google and Apple along with an array of companies focused on corporations.微软去年经历了主帅更替的动荡期,长期领导者史蒂夫o鲍尔默离任,纳德拉接手。这位新任CEO一直尝试着改善这家科技巨头的境遇。这番话正是他希望潜在商业客户铭记于心的讯息。目前,微软不仅经受着来自谷歌公司(Google)、苹果公司(Apple)这类对手前所未有的攻击,还遭到众多致力于拓展企业业务的公司的围堵。Nadella emphasized again and again that Microsoft wants business customers, small and large, to use its data centers for storing digital files, housing software and crunching numbers. To hammer the message home, Nadella name-dropped companies aly using Microsoft’s cloud aly.纳德拉一再强调,微软希望大大小小的商业用户都能使用该公司的数据中心存储数字文件、内部软件并处理数据。为了把这个想法说明白,纳德拉特意列举了已经采用微软云的大公司以壮声势:There’s N, which uses Microsoft’s cloud services to live-stream . Fashion retailer Paul Smith relies on Microsoft’s data centers to back up its digital files. Meanwhile, German elevator-maker ThyssenKrupp stores data from 1.1 million elevators like speed and motor temperatures in Microsoft’s server farms.比如,全国广播公司(N)就将微软云务用于流媒体视频。时尚品牌零售商Paul Smith靠着微软的数据中心来备份其数字文件。同时,德国电梯业巨头蒂森克虏伯公司(ThyssenKrupp)则将110万台电梯的速度、电机温度等数据存储于微软的务器群组。In an effort to show how useful its cloud services can be in a global crisis, Nadella said Microsoft would make its cloud services available to medical researchers tackling the Ebola epidemic, as well as research capable of helping with discovering a vaccine. Nadella did not say whether Microsoft would charge for the services.为了表明微软云务在一场全球性危机中能够发挥多大的作用,纳德拉称,微软将让正向攻克埃拉病毒的医药研究人员提供云务,以及那些有助于发现疫苗的研究。不过,他并没有说明微软是否会对这些务收费。Microsoft MSFT 1.03% peddled “The Cloud” long before Nadella became CEO nearly eight months ago. Although Microsoft still dominates software sales in the declining PC business with a 90%-plus market share, it only has a 14% share among mobile devices, Nadella said at Fortune’s Brainstorm Tech conference in July.早在纳德拉近8个月前出任首席执行官之前,微软就一直在兜售自己的“云”。在7月份的《财富》科技头脑风暴大会(Fortune’s Brainstorm Tech )上,纳德拉称,在当前不断下滑的PC行业中,尽管微软仍以90%以上的市场份额占据软件行业的主导地位,但在移动设备领域。其市场份额仅有14%。Considering how far behind it is in mobile, Microsoft is trying to aggressively grow its pure business services. It’s an area in which the company has always done well and faces less competitoin from the likes of Google and Apple, which dominate the consumer space.正是鉴于该公司在移动领域处于非常被动的地位,微软才要大力推动其纯商业务的发展。这是微软长期以来一直业绩出众的专属领域,并且很少遭遇谷歌和苹果这类称霸消费领域对手的侵蚀。In the four years since introducing Azure, its main cloud platform, Microsoft has been fiercely battling Amazon AMZN 0.85% and its cloud service, Amazon Web Services, on features and pricing. Indeed, Microsoft introduced more than 300 new features to its service over the past 12 months alone.在推出其主要云平台Azure之后的4年中,微软一直都在和亚马逊公司(Amazon)及其云务“亚马逊网络务”(Amazon Web Services)在性能和价格上激烈竞争。实际上,仅过去12个月以来,微软就在其务中推出了超过300种新功能。On Monday, Microsoft showed off yet more new services that are meant to undercut the competition. Those included a faster kind of “virtual machine,” or simulated computer system, dubbed the “G family,” with twice the memory of Amazon’s virtual machines and four times the memory of Google’s GOOG 1.89% .周一,微软展示了更多旨在削弱对手的新务,其中包括一种被戏称为“G家族”(G family)、速度更快的“虚拟机”,或称模拟机系统,其存储容量是亚马逊虚拟机的两倍,谷歌虚拟机的四倍。This year may prove to be a watershed for Microsoft. Its cloud business currently generates .4 billion in annual revenues. But Nomura analyst Rick Sherlund estimated in August the company will become the largest cloud business by the end of the year with around .8 billion in annual revenues. By contrast, Amazon Web Services and Salesforce.com would make .5 billion, he said. And even if Microsoft doesn’t hit those numbers, it has more cash to burn — billion — which it can funnel into its cloud products, if needed. Promised Nadella: “This is just the start.”今年可能会是微软的分水岭。其云业务目前的年收入为44亿美元。但野村券(Nomura)分析师里克o薛伦8月预测称,今年年底微软就将以约58亿美元的年收入成为规模最大的云企业。他说,相比而言,“亚马逊网络务”和Salesforce.com两者的收入总和为55亿美元。就算微软没有达到这个数字,它也有更多现金可烧——高达770亿美元。如果需要,这些钱将投入到其云产品中。正如纳德拉所承诺的:“这才刚刚开始。” /201410/337919。

Few parents see digital games as a promising way to pry kids off the couch─much less inspire them to be useful around the house. But a new generation of chore apps, designed primarily for the under-12 set, aims to turn kids into bed makers, laundry folders and toy picker-uppers by offering rewards ranging from funny collectible monsters to redeemable digital coins. 没有多少家长会把当成让孩子们离开沙发的好办法,更不用说让来激励孩子们在家里发挥作用了。不过如今有了新一代的主要针对12岁以下孩童开发的家政软件,这些软件通过为孩子们提供奖励,比如可收集的好玩怪兽或者可兑换的电子货币,希望把孩子们变成整理床铺、折叠衣和收拾玩具的“高手”。 Brooke Wise of Dallas says a .99 smartphone app called You Rule Chores has her three children, Justin, 12, Rafaela, 9, and Will, 4, actually competing to see who can do more housework. The children were involved from the start, helping their mom enter the list of chores, including laundry, cleaning up after the family dog and loading and unloading the dishwasher. Each child chose one of the app#39;s six avatars, which include a pink kitty, a robot scientist and an intergalactic policeman. 达拉斯的布鲁克#8226;怀斯(Brooke Wise)说,一款售价为3.99美元的叫做“家务,你说了算”(You Rule Chores)的智能手机软件真的让她的三个孩子──12岁的贾斯廷(Justin)、九岁的拉斐拉(Rafaela)和四岁的威尔(Will)──开始比赛谁可以做更多家务了。孩子们帮助妈妈完成待做的家务,包括洗衣、清理宠物的排泄物、把脏碗碟放进洗碗机、将干净的碗碟收好,等等。每个孩子都在软件中选择了一个自己的虚拟化身,可供选择的化身一共有六个,包括一只粉红色小猫、一个机器人科学家和一名星际警察。 For chores completed─and approved by Ms. Wise─the app doles out digital coins the kids can redeem for rewards, such as TV time or a trip to the yogurt store. The siblings compete to see who wins the most coins and like seeing their avatars earn new strengths and skills each time they finish a job. Rafaela says she loves playing with her kitty avatar, and #39;it#39;s fun getting paid#39; in rewards. 完成家务并且得到怀斯的核准后,该软件就会相应奖励一些电子货币,孩子们可以用这些货币来兑换奖品,比如看电视的时间或去酸奶店喝酸奶的机会。三个人相互竞争,看谁赢得了最多的货币,他们也喜欢看到自己的虚拟化身在每次完成家务之后获得的新能量和新技能。拉斐拉说,她很享受操作她的小猫化身,另外,“能够得到报酬也十分有趣”。 For Ms. Wise, who says she was concerned about keeping the kids busy this summer, the results have been surprising: #39;They make their bed, pick up their rooms, and my daughter goes out in the yard and picks up the dog poop! I#39;m like, #39;Who are these children?#39; #39; 之前,怀斯很头疼如何才能让孩子们在这个夏天过得充实些,现在的结果让她非常吃惊:“他们自己整理床铺,整理房间,我的女儿还跑去院子里清理粪!我都要惊呼了:‘这是谁家的孩子啊?’” While preschoolers often like to lend a hand with adult tasks, fewer parents are optimistic they will hear the words #39;What can I do to help?#39; from their older kids. The number of 9- to 12-year-olds who help with household tasks fell 9% between 1997 and 2003 to 72%, according to the latest trend data available, published in a study in the International Journal of Time Use Research. And it may have fallen further amid kids#39; rising use of games, computers and cellphones, says the study#39;s author, Sandra Hofferth, a family-science professor at the University of Maryland and an authority on children#39;s time use. By ages 16 to 18, only 65% of kids take part in chores, Dr. Hofferth says. 学龄前儿童往往喜欢帮大人们做家务,至于年龄较大的孩子,家长们就不怎么指望能从他们口中听到“我能帮你做些什么吗”这样的话了。根据《国际时间使用研究杂志》(International Journal of Time Use Research)公布的最新趋势数据,在九至12岁的孩童中,帮助大人做家务的孩童比例在2003年为72%,比1997年减少了9%。该研究报告的作者桑德拉#8226;霍弗尔兹(Sandra Hofferth)说,由于、电脑和手机越来越多地占据了孩子们的时间,这个比例应该已经进一步下降了。霍弗尔兹士是马里兰大学(University of Maryland)家庭学教授,同时也是儿童使用时间问题方面的权威。她说,16至18岁的青少年中,只有65%的人会帮着做家务。 App designer Brian Linder says he and his business partner Nathan Clark launched You Rule Chores in 2011 because #39;we knew it was always a pain in the butt to get our kids to do work around the house.#39; They wanted to motivate kids without #39;the nagging and the repeating yourself over and over until you sound like an insane person and end up doing the chores yourself,#39; says Mr. Linder, of Dallas, whose own sons are 9 and 12. 应用程序设计师布赖恩#8226;林德(Brian Linder)说,他和他的合作伙伴内森#8226;克拉克(Nathan Clark)于2011年推出了这款“家务,你说了算”软件,因为“我们知道怎样让孩子做家务始终是让家长头疼的一个问题”。林德和克拉克希望能激励孩子们去做家务,而不是家长们“一遍又一遍地唠叨和重复,搞得自己像个疯子一样,结果到最后还是得自己把家务做完”。家住达拉斯的林德有两个儿子,一个九岁,一个12岁。 Parents don#39;t mind the apps#39; resemblance to games because so many children are aly entranced by games on their smartphones and hand-held game consoles, he says. 林德说,家长们并不介意这一应用程序与类似,因为现在有很多孩子本来就沉迷于各种智能手机和游戏机上的游戏。 Chris Bergman of Cincinnati, father of an 18-month-old son, says he worked with another dad to launch an app called ChoreMonster earlier this year because he wanted housework to be fun for kids. #39;Chores were a huge tension point in my home#39; when growing up, he says. #39;I was always getting in trouble.#39; The app, available at .99 a month for use on the Web and with Apple#39;s mobile devices, gives points and rewards for chores, along with passes to a Monster Carnival where kids play to win either one of the game#39;s 200 humorous monsters or a booby prize such as stinky socks. 辛辛那提的克里斯#8226;伯格曼(Chris Bergman)有一个18个月大的儿子。他说他与另一位父亲在今年早些时候发布了一款叫做“家务怪兽”(ChoreMonster)的应用软件,因为他希望让孩子们觉得做家务是有趣的。伯格曼说,在我成长的过程中,“家务是家中的敏感话题,我也总是因此惹上麻烦”。该应用程序费用为每月4.99美元,可以在网页以及苹果公司(Apple)的相关移动设备上使用。这款应用软件会给予点数和奖品作为完成家务的回报,它还会派送一些通关卡,这样孩子们就能参与到“怪兽嘉年华”(Monster Carnival)中赢取200只幽默怪兽或者一些古怪的奖品,比如臭袜子。 Hannah Carpenter of Searcy, Ark., says she had trouble structuring a housework system for her four children, ages 1 through 10, until she started using ChoreMonster in February. The app #39;is a huge motivator,#39; and her kids are gaining skills, she says. Her 4-year-old daughter Enid has learned to fold and put away laundry, Ms. Carpenter says, and her 10-year-old daughter Tristin rushes to help out, saying, #39;Don#39;t unload the dishwasher─I want to do it.#39; 阿肯色州瑟西(Searcy)的汉娜#8226;卡彭特(Hannah Carpenter)说,在二月份开始使用“家政怪兽”应用之前,她一直没能很好地给她那四个年龄从一岁到10岁的孩子分配家务。她说,这款应用程序“是一个巨大的动力”,她的孩子们也因此学到了技能。卡彭特说,四岁的女儿伊妮德(Enid)已经学会了叠衣并把衣归置好,10岁的女儿特里斯丁(Tristin)也很积极,她会说:“别把碗碟从洗碗机里拿出来──我想要干这个活儿。” Other apps include Epic Win, a role-playing to-do list manager, and iRewardChart and Chore Pad, digital replacements for traditional chore charts with stickers or stars. 其它的此类应用包括一款可以角色扮演的待做家务清单软件“史诗胜利”(Epic Win),以及“奖励表格”(iRewardChart)和“家务便笺”(Chore Pad),后两款软件可以取代传统的用便签纸和小星星来做标记的家务清单。 Chores teach kids self-control and self-regulation, says Jim Fay, co-founder of the Love and Logic Institute, a Golden, Colo., provider of parent training and resources. Research shows self-regulation─learning to invest effort and persist in finishing difficult tasks─is a powerful predictor of academic and career success. It#39;s best to start instilling the habit early, Mr. Fay says, teaching children that chores are a shared family responsibility and each member is expected to contribute. If parents can find a way to make chores fun by, say, pretending the open washing machine is a basketball hoop, he says, #39;go for it.#39; 科罗拉多州戈尔登(Golden)的“爱与逻辑事务所”(Love and Logic Institute)的联合创始人吉姆#8226;费伊(Jim Fay)说,家务能够教会孩子自我控制和自我调节。该事务所是一家专门提供家庭教育培训和资源的机构。研究表明,自我调节能力──投入努力并坚持完成艰巨任务的能力──是学术和职业生涯能否成功的一个重要指标。费伊说,自我调节习惯越早灌输越好,应该让孩子们明白:家务是一种需要分担的家庭责任,每一位家庭成员都应该贡献自己的力量。他说,家长如果能找到一种方法让做家务变得更加有趣,比如让孩子把打开的洗衣机看成是个投篮筐,那么“就这样去做吧”。 Working side by side with youngsters on household jobs can be a motivator. By the time they were 3, each of Denise Benham#39;s four kids was pushing a toy lawn mower around the yard behind their father Royce, says the Kennewick, Wash., mother. They learned as toddlers to measure and do basic math by breaking eggs for pancake batter and pouring soap into the washer. Now 4 to 16, the kids do chores with their parents most Saturdays. #39;A bond is created when we work together,#39; Ms. Benham says, while also conveying the importance of a clean, orderly home. 和其他的孩子一起做家务也会是一种动力。华盛顿州肯纳威克(Kennewick)的丹尼丝#8226;贝纳姆(Denise Benham)是四个孩子的母亲,她说,每个孩子在三岁左右的时候都要在院子里跟在父亲罗伊斯(Royce)身后推一台玩具割草机。他们幼儿时期就学会了测量,并通过做煎饼时帮忙打鸡蛋和将洗衣液倒入洗衣机这些事情来学习基本的算数。现在最小的孩子已经四岁,最大的16岁,他们几乎每个星期六都会和父母一同做家务。贝纳姆说:“我们一起干活时建立了一种特殊的关系”,同时也向孩子们传达了家里整洁有序很重要这一信息。 Parenting experts advise treating teens like adults, setting clear expectations and consistent consequences. Jayna and David Cox write and sign a housework contract annually with their 13-year-old twins, Seth and Jenna, paying a week for duties such as laundry and kitchen cleanup, says Ms. Cox, of Oklahoma City. This year, they added mowing the lawn. #39;We#39;re businesspeople, and we feel it doesn#39;t hurt for the children to learn a few things about business,#39; says Ms. Cox, an information-technology project manager. The twins can earn bonuses for extra work, but their pay is docked if they slack off. 家庭教育专家建议,对待青少年应该和对待大人一样,设定明确的期望和前后一致的奖惩。俄克拉何马城(Oklahoma City)的杰娜#8226;科克斯(Jayna Cox)和戴维#8226;科克斯(David Cox)夫妇有一对13岁的双胞胎孩子──塞思(Seth)和詹娜(Jenna)。每年父母都会和双胞胎签订一份家务合同,合同规定每周会付双胞胎五美元以完成洗衣和清理厨房等家务。今年,他们又增加了修剪草坪的项目。身为IT项目经理的杰娜说:“作为商务人士,我们觉得让孩子们了解一些商业知识没什么坏处。”双胞胎可以通过额外的工作赚取奖金,但一旦他们在家务事上有所懈怠,薪酬就会遭到削减。 Such setups require parents to coach their kids on housework skills, but also to give up some control─and avoid micromanaging, which can lead to conflict with teens trying to assert their independence. Ms. Cox says that while she has shown Seth and Jenna how to do laundry correctly, Seth still washes colors and whites together sometimes. #39;He doesn#39;t always care if his socks were once white and are all gray now,#39; she says. 这样的安排要求家长们能够在家务技能方面指导他们的孩子,但也意味着要放弃一些控制,还要避免事无巨细的监管,因为这可能会导致父母与努力要明自身独立的孩子发生冲突。杰娜说,尽管她已经教过塞思和詹娜如何洗衣,可是有的时候塞思还是会将有色衣物和白色衣物混在一起洗。她说:“他一点也不在乎原来的白袜子被染成灰色了。” More important, she says, is that the twins are learning the natural consequences of failing to be responsible: #39;If they don#39;t do the laundry, they don#39;t have clean clothes.#39; 她说,这其中更重要的是,两个孩子学习到了不负责任会有什么后果:“如果他们不洗衣,就没有干净的衣穿了。” /201307/249977。

More than 350,000 gamers from across Europe (and some from North America and Asia) have made the annual pilgrimage to the quaint German city of Cologne, which has a population of just over 1 million. Activision used the convention to debut its multiplayer gameplay for Sledgehammer Games’ Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare, allowing attendees hands-on access to the November 3 release.超过35万的欧洲玩家(还有一些北美和亚洲玩家)带着朝圣般的心情,赶赴人口刚过100万的德国科隆市,参加一年一度的游戏盛会。美国动视(Activision)在展览中首次公布了Sledgehammer Games工作室的多人游戏《使命召唤:高级战争》(Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare),现场玩家亲身体验了这款将于11月3日正式发布的游戏。The global battle for the living room continued in Germany with Sony announcing it 2has sold 10 million PlayStation 4s worldwide. To keep that momentum going, Sony announced a number of exclusive new titles at the show, including the action game Hellblade from developer Ninja Theory, the open world adventure game Wild from Rayman creator Michel Ancel, the shooter Alienation from Housemarque, and Q Games genre-bending The Tomorrow Children. Microsoft announced that Square Enix and Crystal Dynamics Rise of the Tomb Raider, the second game in the rebooted Lara Croft franchise, will be an Xbox exclusive in 2015. Xbox will also be getting another big sequel next year with Halo 5: Guardians.索尼(Sony)宣布,其游戏主机Playstation 4s已经在全球售出超过1,000万台,这预示着对玩家客厅的争夺战今年将继续上演。为了维持增长态势,索尼在展会上发布了一系列独家游戏,包括Ninja Theory开发的动作游戏《地狱之刃》(Hellblade),《雷曼》(Rayman)制作商Michel Ancel开发的开放世界式冒险游戏《荒野》(Wild),Housemarque开发的射击类游戏《异化》(Alienation)以及Q版游戏《明日之子》(The Tomorrow Children)。微软则发布了由Square Enix和Crystal Dynamics制作的《古墓丽影:崛起》(Rise of the Tomb Raider),这是劳拉o克罗夫系列重新启动后的第二部作品,将在2015年于Xbox平台独家发布。Xbox在2015年还有另外一款游戏大作的续集《光晕5:守护者》(Halo 5: Guardians)。One of the more unique games announced at Gamescom was Silent Hills, the latest sequel in Konami’s bestselling horror franchise (which has also spawned two films). The world of gaming and movies combine in this new game, which is being developed by Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain creator Hideo Kojima and Pacific Rim director Guillermo del Toro. The game will star The Walking Dead’s Norman Reedus.而在科隆游戏展上正式宣布的特色作品中,《寂静岭》(Silent Hills)的最新续集赫然在列。这是科乐美(Konami)最为畅销的恐怖题材游戏(还据此改编成了两部电影)。世界级游戏和电影专家,《合金装备5:幻痛》(Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain)的制作者小岛秀夫,以及《环太平洋》(Pacific Rim)的导演吉尔莫o德尔o托罗在这部游戏中强强联手。曾出演美剧《行尸走肉》(The Walking Dead)的影星诺曼o瑞杜斯将在游戏中担纲主角。Here are our top picks for games that debuted at Gamescom 2014.以下是我们精选的本届科隆游戏展最值得关注的新游戏。Life Is Strange《生活真奇怪》Developer:Dontnod Entertainment, Square Enix开发商:Dontnod Entertainment、Square EnixConsoles: Xbox One, Xbox 360, PS4, PS4, PC游戏平台:Xbox One、Xbox 360、PS4、PS3 、PCRelease date: 2015发布日期:2015年In some ways, Life Is Strange couldn’t be more different than Dontnod Entertainment’s sci-fi action game Remember Me, but in other ways, the episodic adventure game is similar. Both games use Unreal Engine 3 technology to create beautiful worlds to explore. And both titles also feature a strong female protagonist. Set in Arcadia Bay, Oregon, players take control of teenager Max Caulfield and embark on an adventure that will span five interactive episodes.从某些方面来看,《生活真奇怪》(Life Is Strange)与Dontnod Entertainment的科幻动作类游戏《勿忘我》(Remember Me)是两款截然不同的游戏,而从另一些方面来看,这两款章节式的冒险游戏十分类似。两款游戏都采用了虚幻3引擎(Unreal Engine 3),打造了美轮美奂的游戏世界供玩家探索。这两款游戏的名字也都有非常具有女性特征的主角。《生活真奇怪》的故事发生于美国俄勒冈州的阿卡迪亚湾,玩家将操纵青年马克斯o考菲尔德,开始一段包含有五个章节互动剧情的冒险。Along with her friend Chloe, Max is out to uncover the truth behind the mysterious disappearance of fellow student Rachel Amber. With an indie-film feel and an eclectic soundtrack, Life Is Strange stands out from other games by blending the angst of being a teenage girl today with life-and-death situations, and the ability to rewind time. While this gameplay mechanic has been used in many games before, this take on time manipulation feels as unique as the American characters the French developer has created.马克斯将与她的朋友克洛伊一起,揭开她的同学雷切尔o安布尔神秘失踪背后的真相。游戏具有电影的体验感,配有不拘一格的原声,将当下年轻女孩的焦虑与生死攸关的情境结合了起来,再加上了时光倒流的能力,这一切使得这款游戏脱颖而出。尽管该作品中采用的机制在其他游戏中曾经用过,但由法国开发商制作的美国风格游戏,还是让这种定时操作有耳目一新的感觉。Quantum Break《量子破碎》Developer: Remedy Entertainment, Microsoft Studios开发商:Remedy Entertainment、Microsoft StudiosConsoles: Xbox One游戏平台:Xbox OneRelease date: 2015发布日期:2015年Helsinki-based developer Remedy Entertainment has blurred the line between Hollywood and games with previous incarnations Max Payne and Alan Wake. Now the studio is combining next-generation visuals with the tension and drama of scripted television. Set in the university town of Riverport, Quantum Break puts players in control of Jack Joyce and Beth Wilder, a pair of ordinary people who are given the extraordinary power to manipulate time after an accident that creates a time rift. Time will randomly break down during the game, which causes disasters in the environment that pause, stutter, rewind and freeze. Fans of Max Payne’s bullet time will see new strategies emerge with gunfights involving time-amplified combat as the player fights against the Monarch Corporation. In addition to the virtual storyline, the game features custom live action storytelling that’s personalized based on the decisions one makes.位于芬兰赫尔辛基的开发商Remedy Entertainment通过之前的作品《英雄本色》(Max Payne)和《心灵杀手》(Alan Wake)模糊了好莱坞和游戏之间的界限。如今,这家工作室将次世代的图像技术与紧张气氛和电视剧剧本结合了起来。故事设置在Riverport大学城,玩家将控制杰克o乔伊斯和贝斯o怀尔德。这两人原本是普通人,但在一次导致时间裂缝的意外中,他们获得了操纵时间的超能力。在游戏过程中,时间体系会随时崩溃,导致环境中的时间暂停、断续、倒流和冻结。玩家在游戏中会与帝王联盟(Monarch Corporation)展开对抗,喜欢《英雄本色》中子弹时刻的玩家,可以在放大时间因素的战中寻找新的战略。除了虚拟的故事情节,游戏还采用了定制的实景真人叙事模式,根据玩家的不同选择将产生不同的后果。ScreamRide《ScreamRide》Developer: Frontier, Microsoft Studios开发商:Frontier、Microsoft StudiosConsoles: Xbox One, Xbox 360游戏平台:Xbox One, Xbox 360Release date: Spring 2015发布日期:2015年春季The developer behind Kinect Disneyland Adventures and Elite: Dangerous is taking the theme park business to the extreme in ScreamRide. The game lets players build outrageous roller coasters, thrill rides and attractions from the ground up and then take them for a test run. The game offers three ways to play: Engineers can construct elaborate rides that test the boundaries of physics and g-forces; Scream Riders get on these rides and experience the thrills and spills first-hand – sometimes resulting in untimely deaths; and Demolition Experts can use any means necessary to tear down an entire amusement park. With classic PC games like Roller Coaster Tycoon now playable on smartphones, this next generation of thrill-ride creator is a welcome interactive experience. It’s always fun to build, ride and destroy roller coasters – and ScreamRide offers plenty of ways to share the thrills with your friends.为Kinect开发《迪斯尼乐园大冒险》(Disneyland Adventures)和《精英:危险》(Elite: Dangerous)的开发商在ScreamRide中,将主题乐园经营发挥到了极致。玩家可以在游戏中建立夸张的过山车、云霄飞车和其他游乐设施,并进行试运营。游戏有三种玩法:工程师可以建设复杂的飞车,测试物理和重力极限;“尖叫骑手”则乘坐这些飞车,直接体验这种惊险与刺激——这有时会直接导致游戏人物死亡;而拆除专家可以用任何必要手段拆掉整个游乐园。随着《过山车大亨》(Roller Coaster Tycoon)等电脑游戏移植到了智能手机上,这一款次世代的过山车游戏可以让玩家有着时尚的互动体验。建设、体验和拆除过山车总是很有趣的,而ScreamRide则提供了多种方式,让你与朋友们共享这种兴奋之情。Until Dawn《静待黎明》Developer: Supermassive Games, Sony Computer Entertainment开发商:Supermassive Games、Sony Computer EntertainmentConsoles: PlayStation 4游戏平台:PlayStation 4Release date: 2015发布日期:2015年Yelling at the screen to tell the female protagonist not to go downstairs alone at night will no longer be futile. In this interactive horror game, you control all the action. The story, which was crafted by filmmakers Larry Fessenden and Graham Reznick alongside game developers Supermassive Games, traps eight friends in a remote mountain getaway with a psycho on the loose. The game stars a Hollywood cast that includes Brett Dalton (Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D), Hayden Panettiere (Nashville) and Rami Malek (Need for Speed). Players will take control of each of the characters as they explore the creepy world and try to survive until dawn. No one is safe from death. And every choice made in the game will result in a different experience. The script was over a thousand pages long, opening up hundreds of different endings for players to explore. The Butterfly Effect technology ensures that no two games will be played the same. The one constant is that the game is scary. Don’t play this one alone or in the dark.在屏幕前对女主人公大喊“不要在深夜独自下楼”,不再是徒劳无用的了。在这款互动式惊悚游戏中,玩家可以控制游戏人物的行动。游戏的剧情由电影制片人拉里o法森顿和格拉哈姆o雷兹尼克与游戏开发商Supermassive Games精心打造。故事中,八位好友被困在遥远的山区度假村,还有一名不受限制的精神病人。游戏群星云集,其中包含《神盾局特工》(Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D)的演员布雷特o道顿,美剧《纳什维尔》(Nashville)的演员海顿o潘妮蒂尔和《极品飞车》(Need for Speed)的演员拉米o马雷克。玩家将控制各个角色探索这个恐怖的世界,试图在黎明到来时存活下来。没有人是安全的。在游戏中,每一个决定都会导致不同的结果。游戏剧本长达一千余页,拥有数百个不同结局等待玩家发掘。蝴蝶效应使得游戏不会有相同的剧情,而唯一不变的是,这款游戏十分惊悚。不要独自一人或是在深夜里尝试它。 /201408/323627。

Apple sold 9m of its latest iPhones over the launch weekend, up from 5m last year and a higher number than analysts had expected. 苹果(Apple)在新款iPhone发布后的首个周末共售出900万部这种智能手机,高于去年的500万部,也高于分析师早前的预期。 The figures, boosted by the inclusion of China in the launch, may ease investors’ concerns over the pricing of the cheaper iPhone and customer response to iOS 7, the most radical makeover of Apple’s mobile operating system in years. 这一数据受中国被纳入首发市场推动,它可能有助于缓解投资者对于廉价版iPhone定价策略以及顾客对iOS 7(苹果移动操作系统多年来最重大的一次改变)反应的担忧。 The figures came as Microsoft prepared to launch its latest iPad rival, the Surface 2, and UK retailer Tesco announced its own tablet, the Hudl. Apple is rumoured to be releasing a new iPad next month. 这些数据公布之际,正值微软(Microsoft)准备推出与iPad竞争的最新产品Surface 2,英国零售商特易购(Tesco)也宣布了自己的平板电脑Hudl。有传言称,苹果将于下月发布新一代iPad产品。 Strong smartphone sales prompted Apple to upgrade its financial guidance for the fourth quarter. It said sales would be “near the high end” of its guidance range of bn-bn, compared with consensus estimates of .1bn, with gross margin at the upper end of its 36 per cent to 37 per cent forecast, which analysts said implied higher than consensus earnings. 智能手机的强劲销售数据促使苹果上调了第四季度的财务预期。该公司表示,销售额将接近其340亿至370亿美元预测区间的“高端”,而市场的共识预测值为361亿美元;毛利率也将处于该公司给出的36%至37%预测区间的高端,分析师表示这意味着苹果的利润将高于市场共识预期。 More than 200m people had upgraded their existing iPhones to iOS 7, Apple said. That is twice as many as downloaded its predecessor in its first few days a year ago, when Apple suffered a backlash against its new Maps app. 苹果表示,超过2亿人将自己现有的iPhone升级到了iOS 7操作系统。这相当于一年前iOS 6新推出后几天内下载量的两倍,当时苹果的新地图应用大受批评。 Tim Cook, Apple chief executive, hailed the company’s “best iPhone launch yet” with “a new record for first weekend sales”. 苹果首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)欢呼称,这是该公司“迄今最棒的iPhone新品发布”,并刷新了“发布后首个周末的销售纪录”。 Analysts at Barclays said that Apple rarely, if ever, updated its sales guidance before the end of a quarter, sending a confident signal and implying that its forecast of 29m iPhone sales for the period may be conservative. 巴克莱(Barclays)的分析师表示,苹果很少在季末之前上调销售指引,因此此举发出一个充满信心的信号,并表明该公司给出的第四季度销售2900万台iPhone的预测或许过于保守。 Barclays said in a note to #173;clients yesterday: “We had thought the iPhone number would be smaller given the bth of the rollout to new geographies and the limited supply stemming from difficulty in assembling the phone with the fingerprint sensor – but this doesn’t seem to be the case.” 巴克莱在昨日发给客户的一份备忘录中写道:“我们曾认为,iPhone的销售数据将低于当前水平,因为纳入首发的新市场数量较少,而组装带有指纹识别器的手机难度较大,进而导致供应受限——但实际情况似乎并非如此。” The iPhone 5s, which includes a fingerprint er and new gold colour, has been in short supply since Friday’s launch, while the plastic 5c is still available for a cheaper , with a contract in the US. iPhone 5s内含指纹识别装置,并有一款金色的新机型。金色款自上周五首发以来一直缺货。而塑料机身的5c仍然有货,其在美国的合约价相对较低,为99美元。 Analysts had been concerned after the 5c’s unveiling this month that its unsubsidised price of 0 in the US, and 0 in China, would be too expensive to win over new customers in emerging markets. Apple sold 2m iPhone 5 units in China on the first day there. 分析师们在5c本月面世之后一直担心,其无合约版在美国高达550美元、在中国高达700美元的定价,对于在新兴市场争取新顾客来说或许过于昂贵。苹果的iPhone 5在中国上市首日共售出了200万台。 Apple shares were 3.8 per cent higher at 5.06 in afternoon New York trading. 苹果股价在纽约股市午盘交易时段上涨了3.8%,至485.06美元。 /201309/258042。

Alibaba executives have defended a controversial deal to split off its payments arm, as investors expressed their concerns about corporate governance at the Chinese internet behemoth’s fundraising roadshow.阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的高管们为该公司拆分付部门的有争议交易进行了辩护。在这家中国互联网巨擘上市路演期间,投资者对其公司治理表示质疑。Fund managers have questioned the 2011 transfer of Alipay to a company controlled by Alibaba founder Jack Ma at private meetings and it has come up at well-attended group lunches in Boston and New York this week, even as executives generate growing excitement over the bn share sale.基金经理们在不公开会议上质疑2011年付宝(Alipay)被转移至阿里巴巴创始人马云(Jack Ma)控股的一家公司之事。这件事本周在波士顿和纽约举行的午餐会上也被提及,即便高管们成功为这宗210亿美元的上市交易激起了越来越大的兴趣。A knockdown price has enabled bankers to build strong interest ahead of the flotation, planned for next week.较低的价格让家们得以在定于下周进行的上市前夕吸引投资者的强烈兴趣。Ownership of Alipay was transferred to a company called SFMS and replaced with a profit-sharing agreement because of unclear Chinese regulations surrounding foreign ownership of payments companies, Alibaba told investors this week.阿里巴巴本周对投资者表示,由于中国针对付公司外资所有权的法规不明朗,付宝的所有权被转移至一家名为SFMS的公司,阿里巴巴集团的权益被一份利润分享协议取而代之。“It was the hardest decision of my life,” Mr Ma said.“那是我一生中最艰难的决定,”马云说。Tony Ursillo, technology analyst and portfolio manager at Loomis Sayles, said the Alipay transfer process had seemed “not totally transparent”, but executives’ answers assuaged concerns at a lunch meeting in Boston.科技业分析师、Loomis Sayles投资组合经理托尼#8226;乌斯罗(Tony Ursillo)表示,付宝的转移过程此前似乎是“不完全透明的”,但高管们在波士顿午餐会上的回答缓解了担忧。“At the end of the day, my bet is on management, and Jack Ma talked about Alibaba like it was his child and he was nurturing it into an adult,” Mr Ursillo said. “There are clear strengths that this company has, from a substantial market share and a trusted brand, to a very experienced management team.”“最终而言,我押注的是管理层,马云谈到阿里巴巴就像谈到自己的孩子,他在把它抚养成人,”乌斯罗表示。“这家公司拥有明显的优势,从庞大的市场占有率和受到信赖的品牌,到一个非常有经验的管理团队。”One investor who is due to meet management next week said the Alipay deal and other aspects of corporate governance topped a list of concerns. The company that shareholders will own does not have direct ownership of Alibaba’s assets and business, which operates through “variable interest entities” owned by its founders. A partnership of 30 individuals will retain the right to nominate a majority of the board after the IPO.定于下周会晤管理层的一位投资者表示,在令人担忧的问题中,付宝交易和公司治理的其它几个方面是最主要的。股东们将要拥有的这家公司并不直接拥有阿里巴巴的资产和业务,这些业务通过创始人拥有的“可变利益实体”经营。首次公开上市(IPO)完成后,由30个人组成的一个合伙人团队将保留提名多数董事会成员的权利。The Alipay switch three years ago underscored how these relationships can be shifted, the investor said. “It is worrisome, and although it sounds far-fetched, I fear coming into the office one day to discover the whole thing has unravelled.”这位投资者表示,3年前的付宝交易突显这些关系可能发生怎样的转变。“这一点令人担忧,虽然这听起来有些牵强,但我怕有一天到办公室后发现事情发生了巨变。”Other investors said they had aly come to terms with Alibaba’s corporate governance and focused their time with management on grasping the scope of the business and the growth potential instead.其他投资者表示,他们已经明白阿里巴巴的公司治理是怎么回事,因而将利用与管理层会面的时间着重了解业务情况和增长潜力。 /201409/327734。

For his Ph.D. in astrophysics, Chris Farrell spent five years mining data from a giant particle accelerator. Now, he spends his days analyzing ratings for Yelp Inc. YELP -0.90% #39;s online business-review site.克里斯#8226;法雷尔(Chris Farrell)在攻读天体物理学士的五年期间从事巨型粒子加速器数据研究工作。如今,他的工作是分析商业点评网站Yelp上的点评。Mr. Farrell, 28 years old, is a data scientist, a job title that barely existed three years ago but since has become one of the hottest corners of the high-tech labor market. Retailers, banks, heavy-equipment makers and matchmakers all want specialists to extract and interpret the explosion of data from Internet clicks, machines and smartphones, setting off a scramble to find or train them.现年28岁的法雷尔是一名数据科学家。三年前,“数据科学家”这个职业头衔几乎还不存在,但后来逐渐成为高科技劳动力市场上最热门的职位之一。面对互联网点击、机器和智能手机产生的数据爆炸,零售商、、重型设备制造商以及媒介公司都想让专业人士来提取、解读大数据。这掀起了一场寻找或培训这方面人才的争夺战。#39;People call them unicorns#39; because the combination of skills required is so rare, said Jonathan Goldman, who ran LinkedIn Corp.#39;s LNKD +0.66% data-science team that in 2007 developed the #39;People You May Know#39; button, which five years later drove more than half of the invitations on the professional-networking platform.LinkedIn Corp.数据科学团队的负责人乔纳森#8226;戈德曼(Jonathan Goldman)说,人们把他们称作“独角兽”,因为这个职位所需要的综合技能是如此独特。该团队在2007年开发了“你可能认识的人”功能。在此后的五年里,LinkedIn这个人才网络平台上半数以上的“邀请”都是由该功能发起的。Employers say the ideal candidate must have more than traditional market-research skills: the ability to find patterns in millions of pieces of data streaming in from different sources, to infer from those patterns how customers behave and to write statistical models that pinpoint behavioral triggers.企业雇主们称,该职位的理想候选人不仅要拥有传统的市场调研技能,还需要具备以下能力:有能力从来自不同来源的上百万块数据中找出模式,然后通过这些模式来推断客户行为,找准消费行为的触发点并写出相关的统计模型。At e-commerce site operator Etsy Inc., for instance, a biostatistics Ph.D. who spent years mining medical records for early signs of breast cancer now writes statistical models to figure out the terms people use when they search Etsy for a new fashion they saw on the street.以在电子商务网站Etsy Inc.供职的数据科学家为例,一名生物统计学士过去几年里通过挖掘医疗记录来研究乳腺癌的初期征兆,现在这名人员为Etsy编写统计模型,推断人们在Etsy上用什么样的词条来搜索自己在大街上看到的时尚新品。At mobile-payments startup Square Inc., a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology who wrote statistical models to examine how people change their political beliefs now looks for behavioral patterns that would identify which merchants are more likely to have clients demand their money back.在移动付初创公司Square Inc.,一位编写统计模型、研究人们政治信仰如何变化的认知心理学士,现在专门研究人们的行为模式,从而判断哪些零售商更有可能遇到顾客要求退货。Another 28-year-old at Yelp, with a Ph.D. in applied mathematics, turned his dissertation research on genome mapping into a product used by the company#39;s advertising team. The same genome-mapping algorithm is now used to measure the effect on consumers when multiple small changes are made to online ads.Yelp另一名28岁的应用数学士把他的研究方向从基因图谱转向了该公司广告团队所用的一款产品。同一种基因演算法现在被用于估测对在线广告进行多项细微调整会给消费者带来什么样的影响。#39;Academia is slow and only a few people see your work,#39; said Scott Clark, who designed the genome-mapping algorithm. #39;At Yelp, I can be pushing out experiments that affect hundreds of millions of people. When I make a small change to the Yelp website, I have a bigger impact.#39;这种基因演算法的设计者克拉克(Scott Clark)表示,做学术的过程很漫长,只有少数一些人能看到你的成果。他说:“在Yelp,我推进的实验可以影响上亿人。我对Yelp网站做一些小改动,影响却是巨大的。”Some such experiments have raised alarms. Facebook Inc. FB -0.15% was recently in the spotlight for an experiment in which its data-science team sought to manipulate people#39;s emotions by altering the content of their news feeds.这类实验中也有一部分引发了担忧。Facebook Inc.近期就备受关注,因为其数据科学团队进行的一项实验试图通过修改信息流的内容来操控人们的情绪。Christian Rudder, president of IAC/InterActiveCorp.#39;s OkCupid dating site, recently disclosed in a blog post that the site manipulated its feeds by inflating the likelihood that any two people were a match, to encourage them to use the service more.IAC/InterActiveCorp.旗下约会网站OkCupid的总裁拉德(Christian Rudder)近期在一篇客中披露,该网站通过夸大两位用户的匹配度来操控信息流,以此鼓励用户更多地使用其务。Mr. Goldman, who now heads a new data-science group at Intuit Inc., INTU +0.67% said employers go to great lengths to land top talent. They must be y to extend an offer at a moment#39;s notice, often within a day or two of interviewing a candidate, and be prepared to meet candidates at any hour of the day or night.目前在财捷集团(Intuit Inc., INTU)带领一个新的数据科学团队的戈德曼说,雇主都在不遗余力地招募顶尖人才。他们必须准备好随时发出录用通知,通常是在面试一位候选人之后的一两天内,而且还要准备在白天或晚上的任何时候面见候选人。While a six-figure starting salary might be common for someone coming straight out of a doctoral program, data scientists with just two years#39; experience can earn between 0,000 and 0,000 a year, according to recruiters.招聘者说,对于一个刚获得士学位的人来说,六位数的起薪可能很平常,同时只有两年工作经验的数据科学家就可以赚到20万至30万美元的年薪。Anyone with #39;data science#39; in his or her job title on a LinkedIn page is going to get #39;100 recruiter emails a day,#39; said Josh Sullivan, who leads a 500-person data-science group at the consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp. BAH +0.86% To woo candidates, Mr. Sullivan goes for a personal touch: sending handwritten letters and flying across the country to meet potential employees#39; spouses. He also sends care packages filled with chocolate, as well as books on academic topics such as statistics and computer science that he knows the recruit is interested in.思艾伦咨询控股公司(Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp.)的沙利文(Josh Sullivan)说,任何人,只要其LinkedIn页面上的职务名称有“数据科学”的字眼,每天将会收到100位招聘者的电子邮件。沙利文目前在思艾伦率领一个500人的数据科学团队。为了吸引候选人,沙利文会使用私人接触的方式:发出手写信件,乘飞机与潜在雇员的配偶见面。他还会寄送装满巧克力的爱心包裹以及学术书籍,比如他知道受聘者感兴趣的统计和计算机科学方面的书籍。 /201408/320486。

Smartphone owners’ waning appetite for new apps is casting a shadow over what has been a technology market hotspot and is fuelling mobile developers’ concerns that their best days of growth are coming to an end.智能手机用户对新应用(app)的兴趣在减弱,为一度成为科技市场的热点蒙上阴影,也令移动开发者担心,他们最好的增长时期正走向终结。Almost a third of smartphone users do not download any apps for their devices in a typical month, according to a report by Deloitte that predicts the volume of app store sales is hitting a ceiling.德勤(Deloitte)不久前发布的一份报告称,接近三分之一的智能手机用户一个月内未下载任何应用,这预示着应用商店销售量正在见顶。The average number of apps downloaded on a monthly basis has decreased considerably in 2014, the firm found in a survey of people in the UK. As smartphones saturate mobile markets in the US and Europe, developers must rely on customers continuing to download new apps for their businesses to grow.德勤对英国用户调查发现,2014年平均月度应用下载量大幅减少。随着美欧智能手机市场趋于饱和,开发者必须依赖客户不断下载新应用,才能保自己业务的增长。“We are reaching a limit in the UK in the volume of app store downloads,” said Paul Lee, analyst at Deloitte. As an early adopter of smartphones and home to many top developers, the UK has become a bellwether for the rest of the mobile industry.德勤分析师保罗#8226;李(Paul Lee)说:“在英国,应用商店下载量即将达到上限。”由于很早便接纳了智能手机,而且拥有很多顶级开发者,英国已成为整个手机行业的风向f标。Almost nine in 10 people also say that they never spend money on apps or other smartphone content, which will raise questions that the size and profitability of the mobile market for games makers and other producers of mobile media.接近90%的人表示,他们从没在应用或其他智能手机内容上花过钱,这令人对游戏生产商和其他手机媒体制造商的规模和盈利能力产生了疑问。The study follows quarterly results from King Digital Entertainment last week which showed customers’ spending on its hugely popular mobile game Candy Crush Saga had declined faster than expected, while its other games were failing to make up the difference.德勤报告公布之前,King Digital Entertainment上周发布的季报显示,顾客在其超级热门的手机游戏《糖果粉碎传奇》(Candy Crush Saga)上的开销减少快于预期,而其他游戏未能弥补差距。 /201408/321909。