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2018年02月25日 23:56:39 | 作者:放心热点 | 来源:新华社
For many of us, the emotions holding the tightest grip on our hearts are disappointment, resentment, blame and anger. They place a stranglehold on our happiness, and the only person who can release them is you.对我们很多人来说,严密控制着我们心灵的情绪是失望、不满、指责和愤怒。它们把持着我们的幸福,唯一可以释放它们的人是你自己。Here are four steps to help you forgive.这里有四步来帮助你宽恕他人。1. Understand why someone acts the way they do. Perhaps the most important tool and first step in forgiveness is to understand ;why; someone acts the way they do. Take your parents, for example. It#39;s helpful to go back and objectively look at their early childhood. Imagine what their childhood, parents and home environment was like. What do you know? What have you heard? What can you infer? Do some basic sleuthing to uncover or imagine why a person (partner, colleague, parent) may have certain defense mechanisms (narcissism, defensiveness, aggression, depression, etc.) or personality traits.1.理解为什么有些人会这样行为。也许最重要的工具以及宽恕的第一步是了解“为什么”有人会这样行为。以你的父母为例。回顾和客观地看待他们的童年早期是有用的。想象一下他们童年、父母和家庭环境的样子。你知道些什么?你听说了什么?你能推断出什么?做一些基本的侦查去发现或想象为什么一个人(合作伙伴、同事、家长)可能有一定的防御机制(自恋、防御、攻击、抑郁等)或个性特征。2. Feel and express your emotions. We can#39;t heal what we can#39;t feel. This may mean digging up long-held or buried emotions from the past, your childhood or right now. Our past pain affects (and in many ways creates) our current upsets. Until we fully release the emotions held in our bodies, they continue to affect our present mindset -- creating tension in the body-mind and even leading to illness.2.感受并表达你的情绪。我们不能治愈我们感觉不到的东西。这可能意味着从过去、你的童年或现在挖掘出长期埋藏的情绪。我们过去的疼痛影响(和在许多方面创造了)我们目前的沮丧。直到我们完全释放身体里藏着的情绪,否则他们会继续影响我们目前的思维——营造紧张的身心,甚至会憋出病来。3. Rebuild safety. Once you have adequately expressed your emotions, create new boundaries for yourself within the relationship. This may mean you no longer see the person, end the relationship or establish new guidelines.3.重建安全感。一旦你已经充分表达了你的情绪,在这段关系内为自己创造新的边界线。这可能意味着你不再见这个人、结束这段感情或者建立新的指导原则。4. Let go. Fully letting go of a past transgression and completely forgiving may take many months or years. Imagine the process of letting go like a labyrinth or a mandala -- spiraling around and around a center point. You may have a phase of feeling better and then realize that you are still grieving or angry. This is natural. The soul does not heal on linear time. Give yourself space. Be patient. True healing happens on the quantum, spiritual plane. Ask for help. Get quiet, mindful and pray to let go. It will happen.4.放手。完全放开过去的罪过并完全原谅可能需要数月或数年。想象放手的这个过程就像迷宫或曼荼罗——螺旋绕着一个中心点。你可能有个阶段感觉到好点,然后意识到你仍然悲伤或愤怒。这是自然的。灵魂在线性时间上不能痊愈。给自己空间。要有耐心。真正的治愈发生在量子上,精神层面。请求帮助。安静下来,用心祈祷放手。它将会发生。 /201303/228230After the 2008 financial crisis, banks initially acted like a cartoon character who shoots over a cliff-edge at high speed and keeps going for a while before falling. Five years on, they are lying on the ground – and will never be allowed to return to their fast-paced ways.2008年金融危机之后,最初就像卡通中的人物一样,以很快的速度冲向悬崖边,在摔下去之前还向前滑了一段距离。五年过后,他们依然躺在地上,也将永远被禁止像过去那样狂奔疾跑。It has taken a long time for the authorities on both sides of the Atlantic to address some of the deep-seated problems that contributed to the crisis. But they are now doing so, despite all the lobbying and protests. Few bankers have gone to jail, but the industry is being disciplined.大西洋两岸当局花了很长时间才着手解决导致危机的一些深层次问题。现在他们就在这么做,尽管面临许多游说和抗议。几乎没有家入狱,但这个行业正在受到整肃。This week brought two announcements that strike at the distortions caused to banking by cheap credit and the underpricing of risk over past decades. One was the Federal Reserve’s decision to implement the Basel III capital rules, and to add extra measures. The other was the European Commission’s assault on how banks trade credit derivatives.近期出了两条政策,矛头指向近几十年来低息信贷和风险定价过低在业造成的扭曲现象。一个是美联储决定执行“巴塞尔III”资本规定,还采取额外措施。另一个就是欧盟委员会(EC)对的信用衍生品交易方式开刀。These measures sound technical, and lack the populist appeal of EU efforts to limit bonuses or impose a financial transactions tax. Yet both will have fundamental effects on how banks operate, and how likely they are to fail again in a crisis. They will not only make banking less profitable, but also less volatile.这些措施比较具有技术性,与欧盟限制奖金或者征收金融交易税的努力相比,缺乏民粹吸引力。然而,对于如何运营、有多大可能再次在危机中陷落,这两个方面有着根本性的影响。它们不仅会削弱盈利性,也会让变得更稳定。It is notable that, both for banks’ capital requirements, and the move from derivatives being traded over-the-counter among banks to trading on exchanges and settling within clearing houses, the industry’s rearguard action has failed. The reforms being imposed after periods of consultation and review are little changed from the originals.有一点值得注意,不论在资本要求方面,还是让间的衍生品场外交易转入交易所交易并在结算所结算的做法,业的“后卫”行动都是失败的。征求意见和审核期之后所实施的改革与最初并没有多大不同。Jamie Dimon, chairman and chief executive of JPMorgan Chase, once described Basel III as “anti-American” but the Fed has taken the Swiss approach of adding to its penalties, rather than subtracting. Gary Gensler, the chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, has energetically forced through US derivatives reforms in the teeth of lawsuits.根大通(JPMorgan Chase)董事长兼首席执行官杰米#8226;戴蒙(Jamie Dimon)曾说巴塞尔III是“反美国”的,但美联储(Fed)却采取了瑞士的方法,增加而不是减少惩罚力度。美国商品期货交易委员会(Commodity Futures Trading Commission)主席盖瑞#8226;杰斯勒(Gary Gensler)顶着法律诉讼的压力一直在积极推进美国衍生品改革。The EU has passed laws that will implement similar changes to swaps trading – making it more transparent and safer by pushing trades through clearing houses. The European Commission’s antitrust action against investment banks, which fought off incursions by exchanges into their over-the-counter market, fits with this.欧盟已经通过法律,将对掉期交易实施类似改革——让交易通过结算所进行结算,使其更加透明和安全。欧盟委员会针对投资(后者击退了交易所对他们的场外市场的入侵)的反垄断行动就符合这一目标。Such initiatives address one of the biggest weaknesses exposed by the 2008 crisis – over-the-counter trading of credit default swaps without an adequate capital cushion contributed to the near-collapse of American International Group. More broadly, banks held too little capital for the risks they were unwittingly taking, as many discovered.这些举措触及了2008年金融危机暴露出来的一大弱点:在没有足够资本缓冲情况下进行的场外信用违约掉期(CDS)交易,正是这种做法导致美国国际集团(American International Group)陷于崩溃边缘。更广泛地来看,很多人都发现,用来应对意外风险的资金过少。The chief task after 2008 was to remedy this, and the fact that the reforms are now falling into place is welcome. Despite Mr Gensler’s fear that other countries will exploit his reforms by luring dealers to less regulated spots, the US and Europe have matched each other. Europe lags behind the US in swaps reform but is on the same path.2008年之后的主要任务就是弥补这点,而改革措施正在逐渐落实的事实令人欣慰。尽管杰斯勒担忧其他国家会利用他的改革措施,将交易商“引诱”到监管较松的地方,但美国和欧洲是差不多的。在掉期交易改革中,欧洲落后于美国,但却走在同样的道路上。Since changes to capital and to margin requirements – a crucial part of derivatives reforms – occur deep within banks’ operations, it is easy to miss their impact. But they affect each transaction a bank undertakes with a customer.由于资本金和保金要求(衍生品改革的一个关键部分)的变化发生在运营的较深层面,很容易就会忽略它们的影响。但它们影响着与客户的每一笔交易。Take the market in credit default swaps, which developed in the 1990s as a means for banks to offset credit risk, and is the target of European antitrust action. Until recently, it was an over-the-counter market controlled by banks, in which deals were done privately and banks did not have to post collateral, as swaps dealers must on exchanges.以上世纪九十年代发展起来的信用违约掉期市场为例,信用违约掉期是抵消信用风险的一种方式,该市场也是欧洲反垄断行动的目标。之前,它一直都是控制的一个场外交易市场,在这个市场上,私下完成交易,不需要像掉期交易商在交易所那样必须提供担保。If Megabank had been doing a lot of business with A Corporation and was near its credit limit, it could clear its balance sheet by writing a swap with Minorbank. Minorbank would take on the existing A risk for a hefty fee, and Megabank could carry on as before. The cost of the swap was high, but it paid for itself by releasing capital.假设Megabank与A公司有大量业务往来,并且接近其信贷限额,就可以通过与Minorbank的掉期协议来清理其资产负债表。Minorbank会收取很高的费用来承担与A相关风险。而Megabank则照常运营。掉期的成本很高,但它会释放出资本。Until 2008, this worked nicely for everyone. A kept being allocated cheap credit, while Minorbank’s traders got bonuses at the end of the year from the swap fees (and later returned the favour to their mates at Megabank). Banks shared out their excess profits from underpriced credit among the shareholders, customers and traders.2008年之前,这么做对每个人来说都很顺利。A一直都能获得低息信贷,而Minorbank的交易员则从掉期费用中获得年终奖(之后也会回报Megabank的同仁)。在股东、客户、交易员之间分配低价信贷带来的超额收益。Then they ran off the cliff.之后他们就集体掉下悬崖。In the new world of higher capital charges, central clearing, exchange-traded futures and a crackdown on anything that smacks of big banks colluding, things are tougher. Banks will need to put aside more capital against deals and cannot reap similarly juicy profits.在资本成本上升、实行中央结算方式、相关期货在交易所交易,以及遏制一切有大“勾结”嫌疑操作的新世界,形势变得更加艰难。需要留出更多资金,并且无法获得像以前一样的丰厚收益。For the health and durability of the system, that is a considerable benefit. The fact that dealers have to pass trades through clearing houses and post margin makes it less likely that the AIG failure will be repeated. If banks hold more capital, taxpayers won’t need to rescue them.这对整个体系的健康和持久发展大为有利。交易商必须通过结算所来完成交易并提交保金,使得AIG式的失败重演的可能性降低。如果有更多的资本金,纳税人就不需要拯救它们。It isn’t cost-free. Joaquín Almunia, the EU competition commissioner, is right that exchange-trading of swaps should be cheaper for investors than the banks’ over-the-counter market, all other things being equal. As it becomes more expensive for banks to arrange swaps, however, they will inevitably pass on some of these regulatory costs to their customers.这么做也是有代价的。欧盟竞争委员会专员杰奎因#8226;阿尔穆尼亚(Joaquín Almunia)说得对,在其他方面对等的情况下,对投资者来说,交易所掉期交易的成本应该低于的场外交易市场。然而,随着安排掉期交易的费用增加,他们将不可避免地将一些监管成本转移给客户。“A product that a bank could customise and was almost free is becoming standardised and very expensive,” says Will Rhode, head of fixed income at Tabb Group, a consultant. Volumes of credit default swaps have fallen sharply as banks becomes swaps dealers.咨询公司Tabb集团固定收益业务主管威尔#8226;罗德(Will Rhode)说:“过去可以定制设计并近乎免费的产品如今正在成为标准化产品,并且非常昂贵。”成为掉期交易商之后,信用违约掉期的数量就大幅下降。This is the price society and the financial system pays for lessening risks and promoting stability. It was never going to be easy to reform bad banking habits acquired over decades but, several years after the crash, banks are facing the inevitable regulatory reckoning.这是社会和金融体系为降低风险、提升稳定性所付出的代价。业几十年来形成的糟糕习惯很难改革,但在危机的几年之后,正面临不可避免的监管算账。 /201307/247224Winter has arrived and it’s time to make space for coats in your wardrobe. Although keeping yourself warm and comfortable should be the priority this season, it’s also a great time to express your style.冬天到了,是时候腾出衣柜添置新衣了。虽然保暖舒适才是冬季着装的首要法则,但这也是你表达自我风格的绝佳时刻。Have a look at the biggest trends in coats this winter; get geared up for the season with our top picks and find the ideal topper for your favorite winter pieces.快来看看今年冬季最新大衣流行趋势。我们精选了一些顶级款式,来选出你最喜欢也最适合你的那款吧。Boyfriend coat: big and beautiful男友款大衣:大一号的美丽First the boyfriend jeans, then the boyfriend blazer, and now the boyfriend coat–nonchalant and slightly too wide, as if you had stolen it out of your boyfriend’s closet.无论是先前的男友款牛仔裤,还是男友款外套,抑或现在的男友款大衣——都彰显出随意且大一号的风情,就好像是你从男友的衣橱里偷来的一样。The boyfriend coat is made of thick wool in a sober tone. The straight cut and extra large buttons fit perfectly with the masculine trend this fall. Because the shoulders are loose, the jacket looks a bit too broad, but that is exactly the way it should be.男友款大衣由厚厚的羊毛制成,样式朴素。直线型裁剪,加上超大纽扣,十分符合今秋中性化着装趋势。因为肩部比较宽松,这种外衣看上去有些过于肥大,但这正是它应有的样子。How to wear the look: Tough girls can combine this new coat with skinny jeans and a pair of biker boots or sneakers. On a night out you can wear the boyfriend coat with a mini dress and stilettos.搭配法则:“野蛮女友”们可以搭配紧身牛仔裤外加骑士靴或帆布鞋。晚上外出时,可以搭配一条迷你裙和一双高跟鞋。For a feminine look, you can also combine it with a small waist belt.如果想要展现女人味,你也可以搭配一条细腰带。Quilted jacket: puff and stuff棉:蓬松饱满的回归Not a fan of the parka? Don’t worry, there’s another jacket that’s set to make a big comeback this season.对登山运动员式的派克外套无感?不用担心,又有一款外套于本季强势回归了。That’s right, the much-maligned quilted jacket has returned. An extension of the trend for padded jackets started by “country chic”, the puffer has a serious advantage over other fashion jackets–it will actually keep you warm. A must for your wardrobe as we move into winter.没错,一直饱受非议的棉又回来了。“乡村风”成功引领了一股棉夹克风潮,如今升级为“棉风”。 与其他时尚外套相比,棉有着无与伦比的优势——绝对保暖。它也是你冬季衣橱的必备单品。How to wear the look: Wear it as a tougher look and combine the jacket with jeans and biker boots, or wear it slightly more “girlish” and combine with a dress.搭配法则:让“野蛮”升级,可以搭配牛仔裤和骑士靴;或是配上一条连衣裙,更添一抹“女人味”。Military coat: super troopers军大衣:变身超级骑兵Every fall without fail we see the resurfacing of the much-loved military trend. Why do we love it so much? Because it always comes up trumps for reinvention, durability and styling edge.每到秋季,我们都会毫无例外地看到备受宠爱的军装风潮的逆袭。为何我们对它如此情有独钟?因为它总会以创新、耐用以及款式取胜。These coats will give any look a polished and put-together vibe. Needless to say, it’s enough to tempt any girl away from her summer wardrobe to a deeper color palette. This season it’s all about giving statement-making masculine garments an injection of pretty, feminine detail.无论你是哪种风格,军大衣都会让你看上去优雅干练且神采奕奕。毫无疑问,它的魅力足以将女孩们的视线从夏季五斑斓衣橱转移到深色调上来。这一季,它为个性鲜明的中性化装注入了一些优雅的女性化细节。How to wear the look: You can go for a beautiful parka that accentuates your waist, or you can choose the oversized edition. The green fabric in combination with leather sleeves is a great match. Want to complete this look? Combine your military coat with biker boots.搭配法则:你可以入手一件漂亮的派克大衣来秀出腰线,或是选择宽松的款式。绿色的面料同皮袖简直是绝配。想看上去更完美?那就再为你的军大衣搭上骑士靴吧! /201211/210071

A recent article suggests the period for making BFFS the way you did in your teens and 20s is over – so have I accumulated the right kinds of friends?最近的一篇文章提到,结交最好朋友的阶段是在青少年时期和20多岁这段期间,过了这段时间,结交朋友的方式会发生变化,也很难交到好朋友了。——那我现在有没有积累够合适的朋友呢?Once, after spending four straight days alone in my flat, communicating only with an editor (via email) and myself (via the bathroom mirror), I asked myself (in the back of a spoon): ;Do you really need friends? You seem to be doing just fine all by yourself.; It was my cue to drop the spoon, get dressed and make plans to see a friend as soon as possible.曾经有一次,我一个人在公寓里呆了整整四天,只和编辑交流(通过电子邮件),再就是自我交流(对着镜子),我问我自己(对着勺子的背面):“你真的需要朋友吗?你看起来自己一个人就挺不错的了。” 这提醒我扔掉勺子,穿上衣,尽快安排和朋友见面。Earlier this week, I Alex Williams#39;s New York Times piece in which he explores the difficulties of making friends after the age of 30. Actual close friends are in shorter supply, argues Williams. ;No matter how many friends you make, a sense of fatalism can creep in: the period for making BFFs, the way you did in your teens or early 20s, is pretty much over. It#39;s time to resign yourself to situational friends: KOF#39;s (kind of friends) ...;本周早些时候,我读了作家阿莱克斯-威廉斯在《纽约时报》发表的一篇文章,在文章里他探讨了30岁以后交朋友的难处。威廉斯认为,很多人实际上都缺少亲密的朋友。“无论你有多少朋友,一种宿命感会潜入到你心底:遇到最好朋友的时机过了,在青少年时或20岁左右交朋友的方式也已经结束了。现在是时候重新调整自己,结交情境式朋友:我们称其为 KOF(准朋友)。”The article made me think. I will be 30 this November, and while I have a stable of friends accrued over a lifetime, I began to worry about the looming deadline, this most depressing of cut-off dates. Are my true friend-making days numbered? Have I collected all the real friends I am likely ever to have? Most important, have I accumulated the right kinds of friends? Who among my friends is the Rachel to my Monica?这篇文章引发了我的思绪。今年的11月份,我就30了,按照文章中的理论,我一辈子的所有朋友也就是我现在的这些朋友了,我开始担心这不断逼近的生日,它太让人沮丧了。我结交朋友的天数屈指可数了吗?我已经拥有了可能有的所有真正的朋友了吗? 更重要的是,我的这些朋友交的恰当吗? 我的朋友中,谁和我的关系是像瑞秋和莫妮卡那样?My oldest and best friend is my sister, born three years before me. The key factor in our becoming friends was clearly proximity, but our friendship is one that endures outside our sisterly bond, and in spite of our many differences. My school years were easy; I was a confident child, and managed to form a series of intense friendships that hallmark youth. At boarding school, I got so close to another girl that we shared the same bed for several months – a fact that was more or less forgotten by the time we returned in the new term and both moved on to greener friendship pastures.我的和我做朋友时间最长,也是我最好的朋友,她比我大三岁。我们成为朋友的关键因素显而易见,但我们的友谊超过了我们的情感,尽管我们之间存在着很多的差异。我上学的时候很轻松;我是一个自信的孩子,收获了标志着青年时期的一系列亲密友谊。在寄宿学校里,我和另一个女孩走得很近,我们几个月都用一张床——这件事新学期我们就或多或少给忘了,我们又各自开拓新的朋友领地去了。I had a different ;best friend; for every year at secondary school – entirely normal behaviour for teenage girls. We moved continents when I was a child, relocating to Nigeria for a decade, before returning to London as a teenager in Year 11. My Nigerian friendships are all but over – Facebook keeps up the charade – and I have no contact with anyone from secondary school. I don#39;t mourn the loss of those friendships too much.在中学时每年我的“最好朋友”都不相同,青少年期的女孩都这样。当我还是孩子的时候我们家在世界各地不断迁移,搬到尼日利亚过了十年,然后在我读11年级的时候回到伦敦。 我在尼日利亚的那些友谊基本上都结束了,虽然在Facebook上看起来还存在,但我现在和中学时期的朋友没有任何联系。失去了那些友谊,我也并没有觉得很难过。Much as you rarely marry the first person you date, it is inevitable that the friends you make in the early days are not the ones that endure. I think that as you get older, friendships become more utilitarian – ;my kid likes your kid; or ;we met at NCT class; or ;we work together and I don#39;t entirely hate your guts;.就像很少会有人嫁给自己的初恋,很明显大部分的人和小时结交的朋友间的友谊并不长久。 我认为,当你年纪变得越来越大,友谊会变得更加实际:“我的孩子喜欢你的孩子” 或“我们在NCT课上遇见的。” 或 “我们一起工作,我不讨厌你。”The intensity of the friendships of my youth was borne of a lack of baggage and an abundance of time. You have greater emotional reserves when you make those friendships and when they fail, you bounce back, get back out there and try again. For most people, that resilience leaches away over the years.我年轻时的结交友谊通常非常亲密,这是因为没有负担并、也拥有大量的时间。当你在交友时你拥有较多的情感储备;当友谊失败时你会卷土重来,回到原地并重新尝试。对于大多数人而言,这种弹性随着时间的流逝慢慢消失。I look at my parents and their friends: my dad has had the same friends pretty much all his life. These friendships continued across marriages, deaths and continental moves. My mother is the opposite: she has one solid childhood friend – who we call ;auntie; even though we share no blood – but still manages to form friendships: deep, intense and emotional. The cost of such bright-blazing friendships is that they are often short-lived and excised from the record as soon as they end. I find the thought exhausting, even as I admire her way of flinging herself out there time after time.我也观察了我父母和他们的朋友之间的关系:我爸爸一生中的朋友基本不变。这些友谊见了他们的婚姻、死亡和搬迁。我妈恰好相反:她只有一个稳定的童年朋友,我们叫她“阿姨”,虽然我们之间并没有血缘关系。妈妈仍在不断地和他人建立友谊:那种深刻的、亲密的和恳切的友谊。这样炙热友谊的代价是它们通常时间较短,当友谊结束时不久就会忘记。我发现这种方式让人精疲力尽,我甚至很佩她能一次又一次地投入情感。The friendships that have lasted for me are more considered and meaningful. I made my two closest friends at university more than a decade ago, when we would loll in the student union pub for most of the day, eating chips and ogling boys. We all live in different cities now, two are coupled up and one has two children, so it#39;s hard to find the time to see one other very often. Our bond is still strong, but we are also more realistic about our expectations.对我而言,能持续下来的友谊都是经过深思熟虑并富有意义的。十多年前,我在大学里交了两个最好的朋友,那时我们成天懒洋洋地待在学生会的酒吧里,吃着薯片,和男孩们眉目传情。现在我们三个生活在不同的城市里,其中两个人结婚了,还有一个有两个孩子了,所以很难找时间见面。我们之间的感情依然深厚,但是我们的期望也更加现实。I have made friends online – people who started out as anonymous witty sentences on a comment th – who have gone on to become a part of my ;real life;. Nobody#39;s perfect, but we all draw the line on the things we will and will not put up with. The friendships that last are the ones where you both recognise that you have a good thing going. Getting older might mean you don#39;t make that many new friends, but maybe that#39;s a good thing. The payoff is that you treat them with more care.我交过网友,在贴下留下幽默诙谐的语句慢慢成为我“真实生活” 的一部分。没有人是完美的 ,但是我们都会在能忍受和不能忍受的事情中间画上界限。能够持久的友谊,是双方都意识到继续交往下去会感觉不错。年级变大可能意味着不能结交很多新朋友,但这也许是件好事。这样你会更加关心你的老朋友。And why the mad rush to make all these friends in later life? ;Friends: One to three is sufficient.; Good advice.为什么要急着去交以后生活中的朋友呢?“朋友:一到三个足矣。” 这个说法真不错。 /201210/204367

The most terrifying words in the English language, according to Ronald Reagan, are: “I’m from the government and I’m here to help.” Today, for some Europeans, they are: “I’m from the EU and I’m here to bail you out.”罗纳德#8226;里根(Ronald Reagan)说过,英语中最可怕的几个词是:“我是政府派来帮忙的。”今天,对有些欧洲人来说,最可怕的几个词则是:“我是欧盟(EU)派来纾困的。”Germany and the single currency have been made scapegoats for the problems of member states and for Europe’s inability to overcome the continent’s financial and economic crises. Berlin is accused of lacking solidarity, imposing contractionary policies and gaining competitiveness at others’ expense. The euro is blamed for depriving countries of their own central banks’ ability to act as lender of last resort and provide unlimited liquidity to the government and banks; and for depriving national policy makers of scope to devalue, thereby trapping them in a vicious spiral.德国和单一货币已被当成了替罪羊。人们认为,欧元区成员国的问题就是这二者造成的,欧洲无力战胜发生在这块大陆的金融与经济危机,责任也在这二者身上。他们指责柏林方面缺乏团结精神、将紧缩政策强加于人、而且为提高自身竞争力不惜损害他国利益。至于欧元,人们则指责它一方面使得各成员国央行无法充当最后贷款人、不能向政府和业提供无限流动性,另一方面使得各成员国政策制定者失去了压低本币汇率的选项、从而让各成员国陷入恶性循环。Germany is flabbergasted at being made the scapegoat. It sees itself as a victim, not a perpetrator. It has contributed substantial funds and assumed a great deal of risk for the five bailouts to date. And it has sacrificed much in the past decade to generate employment at home, with real wages barely higher today than in 1999.对于被当成替罪羊这件事,德国倍感震惊。它认为自己是受害者,而不是加害者。德国为迄今为止的五次纾困提供了大量资金,承担了极大风险。而且在过去的十年里,为了在国内创造出就业岗位,德国作出了巨大牺牲,今天德国的实际工资水平只略高于1999年。But the fact is that every country in crisis needs a scapegoat. It is hard to accept that the fruits of decades of hard work can vanish in a few years. For Europe today, painful domestic reforms can be accomplished only with a high degree of national solidarity, and it is tempting to rally against a common nemesis to achieve such solidarity.但现实就是这样,每个处在危机中的国家都需要找到替罪羊。数十年来辛勤工作的成果,在短短数年之间就灰飞烟灭,这一点很难让人接受。就今天的欧洲而言,痛苦的国内改革只有在国民高度团结的前提下才能实现。因此对各国来说,为国民找到一个共同的出气筒来达成这种团结,实在是一个诱人的选项。The history of financial crises is a good guide to how scapegoating works. Take the International Monetary Fund. Although some of its prescriptions during the 1997-98 Asian crisis were misguided, governments succeeded in implementing essential reforms – many of which domestic opposition had thwarted for years – by rallying national solidarity against the fund. The cost is that the IMF’s standing on the continent is permanently damaged, as shown by the unwillingness of Asian governments to accept its help during the global crisis of 2008-09.金融危机的历史为我们清晰地指出了这种寻找替罪羊的做法是如何得逞的。就以国际货币基金组织(IMF)为例。在1997-98年亚洲金融危机期间,IMF开出的部分药方确实带有误导性,但有关国家的政府是通过使国民团结在反对IMF的大旗下才得以成功实施必要的改革的(其中许多改革曾在它们国内受到多年的阻挠)。为此付出的代价是,IMF在亚洲的地位受到了永久性的损害——亚洲国家政府在2008-09年全球危机期间不愿接受IMF援助,就佐了这一点。This strategy has, to some extent, proved effective in Europe. Germany is the perfect scapegoat: it is the big European brother who is doing well, is often diplomatically clumsy and has a stained history that makes it tempting to revive old prejudices. There is another virtue: scapegoating has so far allowed moderate governments to keep political extremism largely at bay, a remarkable achievement given the deep social changes under way.事实明,从某种程度上说,这种策略在欧洲是有效的。德国是一只完美的替罪羊:这位欧洲老大哥发展得不错、外交上又笨招频出、还有一段很容易引发人们旧有成见的肮脏历史。这种策略还有一个优点:迄今为止,寻找替罪羊的做法使得那些温和派政府得以在很大程度抵挡住政治极端势力的攻击——考虑到社会正在发生的深刻转变,这实在是个了不起的成就。Yet scapegoating is dangerous. At stake for Europe is nothing less than the survival of the euro. The confrontations are causing deep rifts among both states and citizens. Surveys reveal a high degree of animosity between nations. Think of mocked-up photos showing German politicians in Nazi uniforms, or the misguided perception in Germany of citizens in crisis countries living on European welfare handouts.然而,这种策略是危险的。它不仅对欧元的生存、而且也对整个欧洲造成严重的威胁。这种对抗正在各成员国、各成员国民众之间造成深深的裂痕。调查显示,各国之间的敌意已达到很高的水平。你只需想想那些给德国政治家穿上纳粹制的讽刺照片,或是德国对依靠欧洲救济过活的危机国家民众的偏见。The renationalisation of policy making – with politicians increasingly focused on domestic objectives – and the continued blaming of monetary union for national problems, in crisis and non-crisis countries alike, has eroded the credibility of European institutions and the euro. By making integration more difficult, if not politically impossible, this is starting to cause permanent damage. EU institutions may end up in the position of the IMF in Asia, with governments disengaging from Europe and turning inward.由于各国政治家日益关注国内目标,欧洲的政策制定正在回归各国;另一方面,处于危机中的和未处于危机中的国家仍在将国内问题归咎于货币联盟。这两点侵蚀了欧盟机构和欧元的可信性。这一结果正开始对欧盟造成永久性的伤害,它加大了欧洲一体化的难度,甚至使之在政治上变得不可行。欧盟机构的处境最终可能会与IMF在亚洲的处境相同,各国政府会减少对欧洲事务的关注,转而把注意力放在国内。 What is the way forward? For one, Berlin must take more leadership in Europe. As irritating as it may be to be blamed for all Europe’s ills, Germany’s position of strength gives it a special responsibility. This means it should stop hindering financial and fiscal union, and start pursuing it more forcefully. To revive the European economy, it should also address its own domestic structural imbalances.接下来该怎么做?首先,柏林方面必须在欧洲承担更多领导责任。就算被当作欧洲所有问题的罪魁祸首再令人不快,德国的强大地位也决定了它必须承担起特殊责任。这意味着,德国不应再阻挠财政与货币联盟的建立,而应开始更加有力地促成这一联盟。为了重振欧洲经济,德国还应解决其国内的经济结构不平衡问题。Second, EU countries must assume greater ownership of reforms. Rather than scapegoating, governments need to convince their citizens that the fundamental restructuring is necessary and will be fruitful. It is clear, not just in Cyprus and Italy but across the EU, that we have a long way to go to achieve this.其次,欧盟国家必须承担更大的改革责任。各国政府不应再寻找替罪羊,而是必须让本国民众相信,根本性的结构调整势在必行且将带来丰厚的回报。我们还要走很长的路才能实现这个目标,这一点显然不只适用于塞浦路斯和意大利,也适用于整个欧盟。Third, selected decision-making processes in Europe must be removed from the national political sphere. The crisis has shown that, for many issues of eurozone governance, delegating decisions to intergovernmental political bodies does not work. We need to build institutions to fill this void. Creating a European finance minister, making institutions more immune to national interests and strengthening the European parliament are all urgent.第三,欧洲一些高级别的决策程序必须与各国国家政治脱离关系。本次危机表明,对有关欧元区治理的许多问题来说,委托政府间政治机构作出决定是行不通的。我们需要设立相应的机构来填补这一空白。设立欧盟财政部长、建立更加不受各国国家利益左右的机构、以及加强欧洲议会的权力,都是十分紧迫的任务。The renationalisation of policy making is splitting Europe and risks causing irreversible damage. The pursuit of these three measures is important if Europeans are to prove the Reaganite approach wrong and continue on the path of integration.政策制定回归各国正在令欧洲陷入分裂,并可能造成不可逆转的破坏。如果欧洲人想明里根的说法是错误的、并想继续走一体化道路,那么推行以上三项措施就有着重要的意义。 /201304/235916

1. The Casual Vacancy is not Harry Potter: Words featured in Rowling’s post-Potter effort include “cleavage,” “balls” and “vagina.”1. 《临时空缺》不是《哈利#8226;波特》:罗琳以前形容哈利波特的努力的有特色词语包括“cleavage”、 “balls””和“vagina”。2. The original title of The Casual Vacancy was Responsible: Rowling tells The New Yorker that “this is a book about responsibility” — both in a minor and a macro sense. However, she came across the real title when she got her hands on a copy of the standard British handbook for local administrators. “I needed it to check certain abstruse points. And in there I came across the phrase ‘a casual vacancy.’ Meaning, when a seat falls vacant through death or scandal. And immediately I knew that that was the title.”2. 《临时空缺》原标题是《责任》:罗琳告诉《纽约客》不论是在微观还是宏观层面这都是一本关于责任的书。然而,当她接触到一本英国当地管理员标准手册时她想到了真正的标题,“我需要用它来检查某些深奥点。在那里,我看到了词组“临时空缺”,意为在死亡或丑闻时,职位空缺。我马上知道这就是标题。”3. In 2003, Rowling’s father auctioned off a signed copy of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire that he received for Father’s Day: It “Lots of love from your first born,” and featured a drawing of a hand reaching for a gnome. The edition fetched ,000. Rowling has not spoken to him since.3. 2003年,罗琳父亲拍卖了他在父亲节上收到的《哈利波特与火焰杯》的签名本:书上面写着“来自你第一个孩子的很多爱”以及一张侏儒手形的特色图片。该版本卖了4千美元。自那之后罗琳没和他说过话。4. Dudley has two children: Rowling knows a lot about the Harry Potter world that was never published in the books.4. Dudley有两个孩子:关于哈利波特的世界罗琳知道很多从来没有出版在书中的东西。5. She has no interest in her business empire: “It’s a real bore,” she tells The Guardian. ”Should I be more diplomatic? Oh, I don’t care. No, there is literally nothing on the business side that I wouldn’t sacrifice in a heartbeat to have an extra couple of hours’ writing.”5. 她对她的商业帝国没有一点兴趣:“这真烦人,”她告诉《卫报》。 “我应该更有社交策略?哦,我不在乎。生意上的事几乎没有值得我浪费生命中额外几小时的写作时间的。”6. Ian Rankin’s new novel was pushed back to avoid The Casual Vacancy: But he’s just as excited about the new Rowling book as anyone else.6. 伊恩#8226;兰金的新小说被推迟以避免和《临时空缺》冲突:但他和其他人一样兴奋罗琳的新书。7. Rowling has used a disguise in public only once: When she went to buy her wedding dress. “I just wanted to be able to get married to Neil without any rubbish happening,” she tells The Guardian. But Rowling refuses to reveal what this disguise was in case she needs to use it again.7. 罗琳只有一次在公共场合乔装过:当她去买婚纱时, “我只是想在嫁给尼尔时没有任何乱七八糟的事发生,”她告诉《卫报》。但是罗琳拒绝透露当时她乔装成什么样子以防她再次需要乔装。8. She is forbidden from ing E L James’ Fifty Shades of Grey: Rowling says she promised her editor that she wouldn’t. However, she insists that she doesn’t feel like she’s missing out.8. 她被禁止阅读EL詹姆斯的《50度灰》:罗琳说她答应了她的编辑她不会读的。不过,她坚持认为她不觉得自己错过了。9. She considered using a pseudonym to release her new book: “But in some ways I think it’s braver to do it like this,” she tells The Guardian. “And, to an extent, you know what? The worst that can happen is that everyone says, ‘Well, that was dful, she should have stuck to writing for kids’ and I can take that. So, yeah, I’ll put it out there, and if everyone says, ‘Well, that’s shockingly bad — back to wizards with you’, then obviously I won’t be throwing a party. But I will live. I will live.”9. 她考虑过用化名出版她的新书:“但是,在某些方面我认为这样做是更加勇敢的,”她告诉《卫报》。 “而且,在一定程度上,你知道是什么吗?最糟的情况是每个人都说:“嗯,那太可怕了,她应该坚持为孩子们写作”,我可以接受。所以,是的,我会把它写在这,如果大家都说,#39;好吧,这是令人震惊的糟糕——精灵与你同在”,那么很明显我不会开派对庆祝。但我会挺过来。我会挺过来。”10. She doesn’t care what the critics think of The Casual Vacancy: “I just needed to write this book. I like it a lot, I’m proud of it, and that counts for me.”10. 她不在乎批评家如何评价《临时空缺》:“我只是需要去写这本书。我很喜欢它,我对它很骄傲,对我来说那才是最重要的。”11. Rowling credits her first daughter with helping her finish Harry Potter when she was depressed: “It was Jessica — I have to credit her with so much — that gave me the impetus to go and say to a doctor, ‘I think I’m not quite right, and I need some help here.’ Having done that made a massive difference.”11. 罗琳把功劳归于她的第一个女儿,因为在她抑郁时帮助她完成《哈利波特》:“是杰西卡——我不得不把功劳归于她——她给了我动力去看医生,‘我觉得我不一定对,这里我需要一些帮助’,做完心理治疗之后才会有如此大的不同。”12. Rowling is adamant that sex and unicorns don’t mix: “The thing about fantasy — there are certain things you just don’t do in fantasy. You don’t have sex near unicorns. It’s an ironclad rule. It’s tacky.” After years of fantasy, she was y for a little sex.12. 罗琳坚持性和独角兽不要混为一谈:“关于幻想——有一些确定的事情你在想象时你只是不会去做。你不会在独角兽旁边做爱。这是一个铁的规律。这很俗。”在多年的童话之后,她准备好写一点点性爱了。 /201212/211692

Millionaire   百万富翁CEO: ;My wife made a millionaire out of me.;   主管:我妻子使我成为百万富翁。Assistant: ;What were you before?;   助手:以前你是什么?CEO: ;a multimillionaire.;主管:千万富翁。内容来自: /201303/230691

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